Conservation status

No species is listed by the IUCN or under the CITES convention. Nevertheless, drastic declines in local populations have been caused by commercial overharvesting. Dried and processed holothuroids, called beche-de-mer or trepang, are sold as a gourmet food item in Asian markets, where they form the basis of a multimillion dollar industry. Demand for beche-de-mer is increasing, and overfishing is a threat in many areas. The most valuable species are slow-growing, long-lived tropical forms in shallow water, which are easily harvested. Buyers often move into unregulated areas, where lack of management programs allows unsustainable exploitation. Several areas, such as the Galapagos Islands, Fiji, Sulawesi, Solomon Islands, and Cook Islands, have been overfished, and recovery is slow. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the current lack of commercially valuable species around some islands is due to overharvesting there before World War II. Regulation of harvesting in other areas, such as northern Australia and western North America, has led to long-term, stable fisheries.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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