Conservation biology

Conservation biology is an interdisciplinary science that attempts to integrate the fields of biology, ecology, economics, and conservation. Scientists Michael Soule and Bruce Wilcox held the First International Conference on Conservation Biology in the United States in 1978 to address such problems as extinction and habitat loss. Those who attended were ecologists and population biologists already studying these issues. The discipline of conservation biology was founded on the principle that advances in population biology could be applied to conservation issues and put into practice by managers of protected areas. Organizations like the World Conservation Union's (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC) had emerged from the improved quantification of biological diversity as well as the need for conservation. As of 2003, the SSC is a clearinghouse for information on the health and status of species worldwide. Toward that end, the SSC publishes a Red List that uses set criteria (population size, distributional range, rates of decline) to assess and manage extinction risk. As of the year 2000, the Red List included all known birds and mammals on its inventory of 18,000 species. Of these, 11,000 are designated as threatened. The reader should bear in mind that there are about 1.5 million species of insects alone that have been described in the scientific literature. Plants have evolved together with insects, and their species numbers are similarly diverse. Conservative estimates place the total number of eukaryotic (multicelled) species at somewhere near 7 million, so the compilers of the Red List have much information to gather.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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