Doliolaria—Barrel-shaped larval stage.
Ecdysis—Molting or shedding of the exoskeleton.
Ectoparasite—A parasite that lives on the outside of a host.
Endemic—Belonging to or from a particular geographical region.
Endocuticle—The innermost layer of the cuticle.
Endogeic—An earthworm that primarily feeds on soil and plant roots.
Endoparasite—A parasite that lives inside the body of its host.
Endosymbiont—Symbiotic relationship in which a sym-biont dwells within the body of its symbiotic partner.
Enterocoely—Development of the coelom (body cavity) from the embryonic gut (archenteron) occurring in dueterostomes.
Epicuticle—The surface layers of the cuticle.
Epigeic—An earthworm that lives primarily in leaf litter above soil and feeds on surrounding plant debris.
Epiphragm—Temporary mucus door over the aperture (opening) that hardens to seal the snail inside.
Epizoic—An animal or plant that lives on another animal or plant.
Estuary—A semi-enclosed body of water that is diluted by freshwater input and has an open connection to the sea. Typically, there is a mixing of sea and fresh water, and the influx of nutrients from both sources results in high productivity.
Eurybathic—An animal that occurs in a wide range of depths.
Euryhaline—An animal that occurs in a wide variety of salinities.
Eurythermic—An animal that occurs in a wide range of temperatures.
Eversible—Capable of being turned inside out.
Exocuticle—Hard and darkened layer of the cuticle lying between the endocuticle and epicuticle.
Exoskeleton—The external plates of the body wall.
Fibrillae—Small filaments, hairs, or fibers.
Fishery—The industry of catching fish, crustaceans, mol-lusks or other aquatic animals for commercial, recreational, subsistence or aesthetic purposes.
Furca—An appendage that is forked.
Fusiform—Having a shape that tapers toward each end.
Ganglion—A nerve tissue mass containing cell bodies of neurons external to the brain or spinal cord.
Girdle—Outer mantle of the polyplacophoran that is thick and stiff, extending out from the shell plate.
Glycocalyx—Protein and carbohydrate surface coat in cells.
Gonochoric—An animal with separate sexes.
Gonopore—Reproductive aperture or pore present in the genital area.
Gynandromorph—An individual that exhibits both male and female characteristics.
Hematophagous—A group that feeds or subsides on blood.
Hemitransparent—Half or partially transparent.
Hermaphrodite—An organism that has both male and female sexual organs.
Heterothermic springs—Springs that may freeze in the winter.
Higgins larva—Loriciferan larval stage.
Holoplankton—An animal that lives in plankton all of its life.
Homothermic springs—Those with a constant temperature throughout the year.
Host—The organism in or on which a parasite lives.
Hyaline—Transparent, clear, and colorless.
Hydromedusa—Medusa of the hydrozoans.
Hyperparasite—A parasitic organism whose host is another parasite.
Infauna—An animal that lives among sediment.
Inquiline—Animal that lives in the nests or abode of another species.
Integument—A layer of skin, membrane, or cuticle that envelops an organism or one of its parts.
Intermediate host—Host for the larval stage of a parasitic organism.
Intromittent—Used in copulation; often used to describe the external reproductive organs of males.
Kinesis—A movement that lacks directional orientation and depends upon the intensity of stimulation.
Lamina—Thin, parallel plates of soft vascular sensitive tissue.
Larva—An immature development stage.
Larviparous—Eggs brooded within the female that are later released as larvae.
Lecithotrophic—Larvae that do not feed, but rather derive nutrition from yolk.
Lorica—Specialized girdle-like structure made of a set of hardened parts that protect the body, named for the segmented corselet of armor worn by Roman soldiers.
Lumen—Cavity of a tubular organ.
Manubria—Tube that bears the mouth and hangs down from the subumbrella or medusae.
Maxilla—One of two components of the mouth immediately behind the mandibles.
Medusae—Well-developed cnidarian that is gelatinous and free-swimming.
Meiosis—Cellular process that results in the number of chromosomes in gamete-producing cells (usually sex cells) being reduced to one half.
Mesoderm —Tissue derived from the three primary embryonic germ layers, and the source of many bodily tissues and structures.
Metachronous—using coordinated waves, as in bands of cilia beating metachronously.
Metamorphosis—A change in physical form or substance.
Miracidium—Free-swimming first larva of trematodes that is ciliated.
Mitosis—A process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell that results in the formation of two new nuclei having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
Moult—The shedding of the exoskeleton.
Mutualism—Symbiotic relationship in which both members of the relationship benefit.
Myoepithelial—Cells of the epithelium.
Nauplius larva—Name given to crustacean larvae.
Nematocyst—Stingers or stinging cnida of cnidarians.
Neritic—An organism that inhabits the region of shallow water adjoining the seacoast.
Nocturnal—An organism that is active mostly at night.
Obligate ectoparasites—External parasites that cannot complete their cycle when removed from their host.
Oocyte—The egg before it has reached maturation.
Ootheca—The cover or case that surrounds a mass of eggs.
Oral lamella—Oral membrane or layer.
Ovigerous—A female that carries developing eggs until they hatch.
Oviparous—An organism that lays eggs.
Ovipositor—The apparatus through which the female lays eggs.
Ovoviviparous—An organism that produces young that hatch out of their egg while still within their mother.
Parapodium—Appendage present on annelids that resembles a paddle.
Parasite—An organism that lives in or on the body of another living organism, feeding off of its host.
Parthenogenetic—Development of an egg without fertilization.
Pelagic—Organisms that live in the open sea, above the ocean floor.
Pelagosphera—Second planktotrophic larva of sipunculans. a
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