Best examined sipunculan species; model organism for anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and ecology. Used as bait in some parts of the world. ♦
Cutler, Edward, B. The Sipuncula. Their Systematics, Biology, and Evolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.
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Australia: Polychaetes and Allies, The Southern Synthesis, Vol. 4A, edited by Pamela L. Beesley, Graham J. B. Ross, and Christopher J. Glasby. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2000.
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Invertebrates: Onychophora, Chilopoda, and Lesser Protostomata, Vol. 12, edited by Frederick W. Harrison and Mary E. Rice. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1993.
Stephen, A. C., and S. J. Edmonds. The Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1972.
Maxmen, Amy B., Burnett F. King, Edward B. Cutler and Gonzalo Giribet. "Evolutionary Relationships Within the Protostome Phylum Sipuncula: A Molecular Analysis of Ribosomal Genes and Histone H3 Sequence Data." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27 (2003): 489-503.
Rice, Mary E. "Larval Development and Metamorphosis in Sipuncula." American Zoologist 16 (1976): 563-571.
Anja Schulze, PhD
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Phylum Echiura Number of families 5
Worm-like invertebrates with non-segmented, bilaterally symmetrical bodies
Photo: A spoon worm (Bonellia) in Western Australia, with its forked tongue fully extended. (Photo by L. Newman & A. Flowers. Reproduced by permission.)
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