Significance To Humans

As one of the few tropical earthworms capable of persisting under agricultural tillage conditions, it may be of some importance in creating soil properties favorable to plant growth, but it has been implicated in soil structure breakdown when population density becomes high. ♦



Edwards, C. A., and P. J. Bohlen. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. 3rd edition. New York: Chapman and Hall, 1996.

Lee, K. E. Earthworms, Their Ecology and Relationships with Soils and Land Use. Sydney, Australia: Academic Press, 1985.

Stephenson, J. The Oligochaeta. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1930.


Gates, G. E. "Burmese Earthworms. An Introduction to the Systematics and Biology of Megadrile Oligochaetes with

Special Reference to Southeast Asia." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society new series 62, no. 7 (1972): 1-326.

Michaelsen, W. "Oligochaeta." Tierreich 10 (1900): 1-575. Other

Jamieson, B. G. M. Native earthworms of Australia

(Megascolecidae, Megascolecinae). PDF Document on CD-ROM. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, Inc., 2000.

Samuel Wooster James, PhD

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Phylum Annelida Class Hirudinea Number of families 14

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Annelids possessing a caudal sucker used for attachment to surfaces, and a fixed number of body segments with subdivided annuli (ring-like structures); best known for their blood-sucking members and their use in medicine

Photo: Newborn brood of aquatic leaf leeches. (Photo by Animals Animals ©K. Atkinson, OSF. Reproduced by permission.)

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