Resources

Books

Brusca, R. C., and G. J. Brusca. Invertebrates, 2nd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2003.

Caiman, W. T. "Crustacea." In A Treatise on Zoology, Part 7, third fascicle, edited by R. Lankester. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1909.

Cannon, H. G. "Leptostraca." In Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, Vol. 5, Section 1, Book 4, no. 1, edited by H. G. Bronn. Leipzig, Germany: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, 1960.

Dahl, E., and J.-W. Wägele. "Sous-classe des Phyllocarides (Phyllocarida Packard, 1879)." In Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Crustacés, Tome VII, Fascicule II, edited by J. Forest. Paris: Masson et Cie, 1996.

Fretter, V., and A. Graham. A Functional Anatomy of Invertebrates. London: Academic Press, 1976.

Haney, T. A., and J. W. Martin. "Leptostraca." In Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates of the United States and Canada, edited by D. Turgeon. Bethesda, MD: American Fisheries Society Special Publication, forthcoming.

Hessler, R. R., and F. R. Schram. "Leptostraca as Living Fossils." In Living Fossils, edited by N. Eldredge and M. Stanley. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984.

Kaestner, A. Invertebrate Zoology, Vol. 3, Crustacea. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970.

McLaughlin, P. A. Comparative Morphology of Recent Crustacea. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1980.

Rolfe, W. D. I. "Phyllocarida." In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part R, Arthropoda 4, Vol. 1, edited by R. C. Moore. Lawrence: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press, 1969.

Ruppert, E. E., and R. D. Barnes. Invertebrate Zoology, 6th ed. Fort Worth, Texas: Saunders College Publishing, 1994.

Schmitt, W. L. Crustaceans. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1965.

Schram, F. R. Crustacea. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Periodicals

Brahm, C., and S. R. Geiger. "On the Biology of the Pelagic Crustacean Nebaliopsis typica G. O. Sars." Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 65 (1966): 41-46.

Dahl, E. "Crustacea Leptostraca, Principles of Taxonomy and A Revision of European Shelf Species." Sarsia 70 (1985): 135-165.

Hessler, R. R. "Dahlella caldariensis, New Genus, New Species: A Leptostracan (Crustacea, Malacostraca) from Deep-sea

Hydrothermal Vents." Journal of Crustacean Biology 4, no. 4 (1984): 655-664.

Martin, J. W., and G. E. Davis. "An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea." Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Science Series 39 (2001): 1-124.

"Description, External Morphology, and Natural History Observations of Nebalia hessleri, New Species (Phyllocarida: Leptostraca), from Southern California, with a Key to the Extant Families and Genera of the Leptostraca." Journal of Crustacean Biology 16, no. 2 (1996): 347-372.

Olesen, J. "A New Species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from Unguja Island (Zanzibar), Tanzania, East Africa, with a Phylogenetic Analysis of Leptostracan Genera." Journal of Natural History 33, no. 12 (1999): 1789-1809.

Schram, F. R., and E. Malzahn. "The Fossil Leptostracan Rhabdouraea bentzi." Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 20 (1984): 95-98.

Spears, T., and L. G. Abele. "Phylogenetic Relationships of Crustaceans with Foliaceous Limbs: An 18S rDNA Study of Branchiopoda, Cephalocarida, and Phyllocarida." Journal of Crustacean Biology 19 (1999): 825-843.

Walker-Smith, G. K. "Levinebalia maria, a New Genus and New Species of Leptostraca (Crustacea) from Australia." Memoirs of Museum Victoria 58, no. 1 (2000): 137-148.

Walker-Smith, G. K., and G. C. B. Poore. "A Phylogeny of the Leptostraca (Crustacea) with Keys to the Families and Genera." Memoirs of Museum Victoria 58, no. 2 (2001): 383-410.

Other

"Anchialine Fauna of the Bahamas (Speonebalia cannoni)." April 16, 2003 [July 30, 2003.] <http://www.tamug.edu/ cavebiology/fauna/bahamafaunalist.html>.

"The Biology of Sea Fleas." [July 30, 2003.] <http://www .museum.vic.gov.au/crust/nebbiol.html>.

"Leptostraca." [July 30, 2003.] <http://atiniui.nhm.org/peet/ leptostraca/index.html>.

"Leptostraca—Sea Fleas (Tree of Life Web Project)." 2002 [July 30, 2003.] <http://tolweb.org/tree?group= Leptostraca&contgroup=Malacostraca>.

"Leptostracan Morphology...A Look with the Scanning

Electron Microscope." [July 30, 2003.] <http://atiniui.nhm .org/people/haney/morphologySEM.html>.

Lowry, J. K. "Crustacea, the Higher Taxa—Leptostraca (Malacostraca)." October 2, 1999 [July 30, 2003.] <http:// www.crustacea.net/crustace/www/leptostr.htm>.

Estela C. Lopretto, PhD

Phylum Anthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Stomatopoda Number of families 17

Thumbnail description

Predatory, shrimplike crustaceans with acute vision and complex behavior that subdue prey and defend themselves by means of specialized forelimbs modified with stabbing spines or heavily calcified "elbows" used as clubs

Photo: Orange mantis shrimps (Lysiosquilla sp.) live in burrows and prey on small fishes which they "spear" with their sharp claws. (Photo by David Hall/Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

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