Abbott, J., R. Williamson, and L. Maddock, eds. Cephalopod Neurobiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Boyle, P. R., ed. Cephalopod Life Cycles. Vol. I, Species Accounts. London: Academic Press, 1983.

-. Cephalopod Life Cycles. Vol. II, Comparative Reviews.

London: Academic Press, 1987.

"Cephalopoda." In Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Vol. 6A, Mollusca II, edited by F. W. Harrison and A. J. Kohn. New York: Wiley-Liss, Inc., 1997.

Clarke, M. R., ed. A Handbook for the Identification of Cephalopod Beaks. Oxford, U.K.: The Clarendon Press, 1986.

Gilbert, D. L., W. J. Adelman, and J. M. Arnold, eds. Squid as Experimental Animals. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.

Hanlon, R. T., and J. B. Messenger. Cephalopod Behaviour. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kinne, O., ed. Diseases of Marine Animals, Vol. III, Cephalopoda through Urochordata. Hamburg, Germany: Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, 1990.

Mangold, K. Traité de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Tome 5, fascicule 4, Céphalopodes. Paris: Masson et Cie, 1989.

Nesis, K N. Cephalopods of the World: Squids, Cuttlefishes,

Octopuses and Allies. English translation. Neptune City, NJ: T. F. H. Publications, 1987.

Okutani, T. Cuttlefish and Squids of the World in Color. Tokyo: National Cooperative Association of Squid Processors, 1995.

Saunders, W. B., and N. H. Landman, eds. Nautilus. The Biology and Paleobiology of a Living Fossil. New York: Plenum Press, 1987.

Ward, P. D. Natural History of Nautilus. London: Allen and Unwin, 1987.


Clarke, M. R., ed. "The Role of Cephalopods in the World's Oceans." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London 351, no. 1343 (1996): 977-1112.

Roper, C. F. E., and M. Vecchione, eds. "The Gilbert L. Voss Memoral Issue: Systematics, Fisheries and Biology of Cephalopods." Bulletin of Marine Science 49, nos. 1-2 (1991): 1-670.

Sweeney, M. J., et al., eds. "'Larval' and Juvenile Cephalopods: A Manual for Their Identification." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 513 (1992): 1-282.

Voss, N. A., et al., eds. "Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods." Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 586 (1998): 1-599.


Cephalopod International Advisory Council (CIAC). Dr. Michael Vecchione, President. NOAA/NMFS National Systematics Laboratory, National Museum of Natural History, MRC-153, Washington, DC 20013-7012.


"Cephalopoda Cuvier, 1797." Tree of Life Web Project. 1996 (21 July 2003). < /mollusca/cephalopoda/cephalopoda.html>.

"Cephalopods at the National Museum of Natural History." Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 28 Jan. 2002 (21 July 2003). <>.

CephBase. 18 July 2002 (21 July 2003). <http://www.cephbase>.

Fossil Coleoidea Page. 1998 (21 July 2003). <http://userpage.fu>.

Michael Vecchione, PhD

This page intentionally left blank

Phylum Phoronida Number of families 1

Thumbnail description

Sedentary, infaunal, benthic suspension-feeders with a vermiform (worm-like) body that bears a lophophore and is enclosed in a slender tube in which the animal moves freely and is anchored by an ampulla.

Photo: A golden phoronid (Phoronopsis califor-nica) in Madeira (Sao Pedro, southeast coast, about 100 ft [30 m] depth) showing the helicoidal shape of the lophophore. (Photo by Peter Wirtz. Reproduced by permission.)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Diabetes Sustenance

Diabetes Sustenance

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Dealing With Diabetes The Healthy Way. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Learning How Nutritional Supplements Can Control Sugar Levels.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment