Reproductive Biology

Mating takes place in water column. Mating behavior is not known, but probably involves male detection of pheromone trail laid down by female. Male grasps female using left fifth leg, and transfers single spermatophore with tip of right leg.

Spermatophore discharges into seminal receptacle in female genital region. Sperm stored in seminal receptacle; stored sperm from single mating is probably sufficient for lifetime egg production by female; remating is rare. Female can produce numerous batches of eggs, broadcast into water column at night. Two types of eggs produced, subitaneous eggs, which hatch after about one day, and resting eggs, which have a spiny external coat and sink to lie on sediment. Resting eggs typically act as overwintering stage, hatching in spring.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

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