Reproductive biology

As far as is known, all tongue worm females become sexually mature precociously. Copulation occurs when the uterus is undeveloped and when males and females are of similar size. Copulation is a lengthy and complex process, entailing docking of the paired penises in the narrow spermathecal duct and concomitant transfer of millions of filiform sperm. Stored sperm fertilize ova released continuously from the ovaries of mature females. Fertilized eggs mature as they descend the uterus of porocephalids, and gravid females of Armillifer and Linguatula species may contain millions of eggs. In contrast, the eggs of cephalobaenids are stored temporarily in a saccate uterus until 30-50% become infectious (i.e., they contain a fully mature primary larva). Then egg deposition begins. The vagina is equipped with a sieve-like mechanism that retains small, undeveloped eggs but allows mature eggs to escape. Thus in both orders, continuous egg production is usual. Eggs shed into lungs are wafted out by the hosts' ciliation and swallowed.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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