Physical Characteristics

Whip spiders or tailless whip scorpions; a typical individual grows to 1.2 in (3 cm) in length, and does not have spinnerets or poison (venom) glands. Possesses one spine in between two longer spines on dorsal surface of pedipalpal tibia. Pedipalpi (palps) take on basket-like shape for capturing prey. Young usually have reddish palps with banded legs, while adults are colored more uniformly. First pair of elongated, whip-like legs has evolved from walking appendages to sensory defensive/tactical appendages. Antenniform first legs are covered with mul-tiporous hairs used as olfactory sensilla. Legs lack pulvilli on

■ Phrynus parvulus H Pholcus phalangioides tips. Prosoma is wider than long, and covered by carapace. Opisthosoma is segmented and lacks telson and defensive glands. Prosoma and opisthosoma are connected by narrow pedical. Chelicera has basal article and fangs that are spiderlike. Pedipalpal coxal endites are not fused, while raptorial distal articles possess strong spines and fold against spiny femur. There is a labium. Abdominal ganglia are moved to prosoma and fused with subesophageal ganglion. There is a pumping pharynx and a pumping stomach, and two pairs of book lungs.

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