Physical Characteristics

Heavy-bodied, usually 0.12-0.20 in (3-5 mm) in length, but can reach up to 0.39 in (10 mm) long. It possesses thick ex-oskeleton along with cucullus (transverse hood-like flap) that covers mouthparts, and can be raised and lowered and is located at anterior edge of carapace. Prosoma is covered by carapace and is widely connected to opisthosoma, which narrows at front, forming pedicel (waist), where it is attached to prosoma (or cephalothorax). At the end of abdomen, tubucles stick out, forming anus. Chelicerae terminate into two articles that form scorpion-like pincers. Smallish pedipalpi are leg-like and also end in medium-sized pincers. Ventral and coxal endites are

fused to form trough, posterior wall of postoral cavity. Leg coxae cover venter of prosoma. Short and heavy legs have no modifications except in third pair of males, which are modified to form copulatory organs. It has no eyes, and is poorly equipped with any type of sense organs. Male organs are found on metatarsus and tarsus of third pair of legs; metatarsus and first two segments of tarsus are modified by cavities and by fixed and moveable processes. Excretory organs consist of Malpighian tubules and pair of coxal glands. Circulatory system is degenerate; it has no lungs, and gas exchange takes place through trachea.

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