P

Pachymerium ferrugineum. See Earth centipedes Pacific endodontoid snails, 2:414 Pacific mole crabs. See Pacific sand crabs Pacific octopods, giant, 2:476 Pacific sand crabs, 2:202, 2:206-207 Pagurapseudes spp., 2:236 Pagurus bernhardus. See Common hermit crabs

Painted shrimps. See Harlequin shrimps

Palaeocopida, 2:311

Palaeohirudo eichstaettensis, 2:75

Palaeopalaemon newberryi, 2:198

Paleoheterodonta, 2:451

Palolo worms, 2:47

Palpigradi, 2:333

Panarthropoda, 2:115

Panda prawns. See Giant tiger prawns

Pandinus imperator. See Emperor scorpions

Pandoridae, 2:451

Panulirus argus. See Caribbean spiny lobster Paper nautilus. See Greater argonauts Parabathynellidae, 2:177 Parachela, 2:115 Paraescarpia spp., 2:91 Parafontaria laminata, 2:365 Paraleiopus macrochelis, 2:237, 2:238-239 Paralithodes camtschaticus. See Red king crabs Paralysis ticks. See Rocky Mountain wood ticks

Paramysis spp., 2:216 Paranebalia spp., 2:161 Paranebaliidae, 2:161 Parartemia spp., 2:135, 2:136 Parartemiidae, 2:135 Parasambonia spp., 2:318 Parasitic flatworms, 2:13, 2:15, 2:33 Parasitism, 2:28, 2:31-32, 2:32, 2:33

See also Behavior Parastygarctus sterreri, 2:118 Parchment worms, 2:49, 2:55-56 Parthenogenesis, 2:17, 2:22-24

See also Reproduction Pasteur, Louis, 2:33 Patella spp., 2:423, 2:424, 2:425 Patella vulgata. See Common limpets Patellidae, 2:423, 2:424, 2:425 Patellina, 2:423

Patellogastropoda. See True limpets Pauropodidae, 2:375 Pauropods, 2:375-377 PCR (Polymerase chain reaction), 2:7-8 Pea crabs, 2:202, 2:208, 2:211-212 Peacock mantis shrimps, 2:169, 2:170, 2:172,

2:174-175 Peanut bugs, 2:39

2:97-101, 2:99 Pearl mussels, freshwater, 2:454 Pearl oysters, 2:454, 2:455, 2:461-462 Pearlfishes, 2:32

Pearly mussels, European, 2:455, 2:462-463

Pearly nautilus, 2:481, 2:482, 2:483

Pectinatella magnifica, 2:499, 2:500, 2:501

Pectinatellidae, 2:497

Pectinidae, 2:452

Pederson cleaner shrimps, 2:34

Pelagodiscus spp., 2:515

Pelonia spp., 2:318

Pen shells. See Noble pen shells

Penaeoidea, 2:197, 2:198, 2:201

Penaeus monodon. See Giant tiger prawns

Penicillata, 2:363

Pentastomida. See Tongue worms Peracarida, 2:229, 2:241, 2:243, 2:245 Periclimenes spp., 2:200 Periclimenes pedersoni. See Pederson cleaner shrimps Periodicity, reproductive, 2:18

See also Reproduction Perionyx excavatus, 2:68 Peripatidae, 2:109, 2:110 Peripatopsidae, 2:109, 2:110 Peripatuses, 2:109-114 behavior, 2:110 conservation status, 2:111 distribution, 2:110 evolution, 2:109 feeding ecology, 2:110 habitats, 2:110 humans and, 2:111 physical characteristics, 2:109-110 reproduction, 2:110 species of, 2:113-114 taxonomy, 2:109 Periplaneta spp. See Cockroaches Petalophthalmidae, 2:215 Phalangium opilio. See Common harvestmen Phallodrilus macmasterae, 2:67 Pharmaceuticals, 2:42-43

See also Humans Pharyngidea, 2:59 Phascolion spp., 2:98 Phascolion strombus, 2:98 Phascolosomatidea, 2:97 Phenacolepadidae, 2:439 Pholadidae, 2:452

Pholcus phalangioides. See Long-bodied cellar spiders Pholidoskepia, 2:379 Phoresy, 2:32

See also Behavior Phoronids, 2:13, 2:491-495, 2:493 Phoronis spp., 2:491 Phoronis australis, 2:491 Phoronis hippocrepia, 2:491 Phoronis ijimai, 2:491, 2:493, 2:494, 2:495 Phoronis muelleri, 2:491 Phoronis ovalis, 2:491 Phoronis pallida, 2:491 Phoronis psammophila, 2:491 Phoronopsis spp., 2:491 Phoronopsis albomaculata, 2:491 Phoronopsis californica. See Golden phoronoids Phoronopsis harmeri, 2:491, 2:493, 2:494, 2:495 Phronima spp., 2:261

Phronima sedentaria. See Coopers of the sea Phrynarachne spp. See Crab spiders Phrynusparvulus, 2:337, 2:341-342 Phylactolaemata. See Freshwater bryozoans Phyllidia coelestis. See Nudibranchs Phyllocarida. See Leptostracans Phyllodocids, 2:47 Phylogeny, 2:7-14, 2:15 Physical characteristics amphionids, 2:195-196 amphipods, 2:261, 2:265-271

Physical characteristics (continued) anaspidaceans, 2:181, 2:183 aplacophorans, 2:379-380, 2:382-385 Arachnida, 2:333-334, 2:339-352 articulate lampshells, 2:521-522, 2:525-527 bathynellaceans, 2:177-178, 2:179 beard worms, 2:85, 2:88 bivalves, 2:451-452, 2:453, 2:457-461,

2:463-466 caenogastropods, 2:445-446, 2:449 centipedes, 2:19, 2:353-354, 2:358-362 cephalocarids, 2:131, 2:133 Cephalopoda, 2:19, 2:475-477, 2:476,

2:482-488 chitons, 2:393-395, 2:397-400 clam shrimps, 2:147, 2:150-151 copepods, 2:299-300, 2:304-309 cumaceans, 2:229, 2:232 Decapoda, 2:198, 2:199, 2:204-213 deep-sea limpets, 2:435, 2:437 earthworms, 2:18, 2:65-66, 2:67, 2:70-73 echiurans, 2:103, 2:106-107 fairy shrimps, 2:135-136, 2:139 fish lice, 2:289, 2:292-293 freshwater bryozoans, 2:497, 2:500-502 horseshoe crabs, 2:327-328, 2:329,

2:331-332 Isopoda, 2:249-250, 2:254-259 krill, 2:185, 2:186, 2:189-192 leeches, 2:75-76, 2:77, 2:80-82 leptostracans, 2:161, 2:164-165 lophogastrids, 2:225, 2:227 mantis shrimps, 2:167-168, 2:173-175 marine bryozoans, 2:503, 2:506-508, 2:509,

2:513-514 mictaceans, 2:241, 2:242 millipedes, 2:18, 2:19, 2:363-364, 2:367-370 monoplacophorans, 2:387-388, 2:390-391 mussel shrimps, 2:311-312, 2:314 mysids, 2:215, 2:219-221 mystacocarids, 2:295, 2:297 myzostomids, 2:59, 2:62 Neritopsina, 2:439-440, 2:442-443 nonarticulate lampshells, 2:515, 2:518-519 Onychophora, 2:109-110, 2:113-114 pauropods, 2:375, 2:377 peanut worms, 2:97-98, 2:100-101 phoronids, 2:491, 2:494 Polychaeta, 2:45-46, 2:50-56 Pulmonata, 2:413, 2:417-421 remipedes, 2:125, 2:128 sea slugs, 2:403, 2:404, 2:407-409 sea spiders, 2:321, 2:324-325 spelaeogriphaceans, 2:243, 2:244 symphylans, 2:371, 2:373 tadpole shrimps, 2:141, 2:145-146 tanaids, 2:235, 2:238-239 tantulocaridans, 2:283, 2:286 Thecostraca, 2:273-275, 2:278-280 thermosbaenaceans, 2:245, 2:247 tongue worms, 2:318-319 true limpets, 2:423, 2:426-427 tusk shells, 2:469, 2:473-474 Vestimentifera, 2:91, 2:94 Vetigastropoda, 2:429-430, 2:433-434 water bears, 2:115-116, 2:120-123 water fleas, 2:153, 2:157-158 Physical defense, 2:37

See also Behavior Physidae. See Tadpole snails

Pile-worms, 2:49, 2:53, 2:54 Pileworms. See Common shipworms Pilina spp., 2:387

Pill millipedes, 2:364, 2:366, 2:367-368 Pillbugs, 2:249-260, 2:251 behavior, 2:250-251 conservation status, 2:252 distribution, 2:250 evolution, 2:249 feeding ecology, 2:251-252 habitats, 2:250 humans and, 2:252 physical characteristics, 2:249-250 reproduction, 2:252 taxonomy, 2:249 Pinctada fucata, 2:454

Pinctada margaritifera. See Black-lipped pearl oysters

Pinna nobilis. See Noble pen shells Pinnotheres pisum. See Pea crabs Piscicolidae. See Fish leeches Pistol shrimps, 2:32, 2:200, 2:201 Placiphorella spp., 2:395 Placiphorella velata. See Veiled chitons Placobdelloides jaegerskioeldi. See Hippopotamus leeches Plagioglypta iowensis, 2:469 Planarians, 2:35, 2:36, 2:37 Planktonic larval dispersal, 2:21 Planktotrophic larvae, 2:21

See also Reproduction Planorbidae, 2:412 Plasmodium spp., 2:11 Plasmodium falciparum, 2:12, 2:31 Plasticity, developmental, 2:21-22

See also Reproduction Platyarthrus spp., 2:251 Platycopioida, 2:299, 2:300 Platydesmids, 2:365

Platyhelminthes. See Parasitic flatworms

Platyops sterreri, 2:217 Pleocyemata, 2:197

Pleurotomarioidea, 2:429, 2:430, 2:431 Pleustes platypa, 2:264, 2:268-269 Plicate nerites, 2:442 Plumatella fungosa, 2:499, 2:501-502 Plumatellidae, 2:497 Podocopida, 2:311, 2:312 Pogonophora. See Beard worms Poikilothermy, 2:26 Poisoning, shellfish, 2:12 See also specific shellfish Polyartemia spp., 2:135 Polyartemiella spp., 2:135 Polychaeta, 2:45-57, 2:48, 2:49 behavior, 2:32, 2:43, 2:46 conservation status, 2:47 distribution, 2:46 evolution, 2:45

feeding ecology, 2:36, 2:46-47 habitats, 2:46 humans and, 2:47 physical characteristics, 2:45-46 reproduction, 2:21-22, 2:21-23, 2:47 species of, 2:50-56 taxonomy, 2:45 Polydesmida, 2:365 Polydesmus spp., 2:364 Polydesmus angustus. See Flat-backed millipedes

Polyembryony, 2:22

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 2:7-8, 2:49

Polyplacophora. See Chitons Polyxenus lagurus. See Bristly millipedes Polyzonium spp., 2:364

Pomacea canaliculata. See Golden apple snails Pontoscolex corethrurus, 2:69, 2:72 Population ecology, 2:25, 2:26-27

See also Reproduction Porcelain crabs, 2:197, 2:198 Porcellio scaber. See Common rough woodlice Porcellionidae, 2:250 Porocephalida, 2:317-318, 2:319, 2:320 Porocephalidae, 2:318 Porocephalus spp., 2:318, 2:320 Porocephalus crotali, 2:317, 2:318, 2:319, 2:320 Postembryonic development, 2:21-22, 2:23

See also Reproduction Pouch snails. See Tadpole snails Prawn killers. See Mantis shrimps Prawns, 2:198

See also Behavior Premnas spp., 2:34 Prévost, Bénédicte, 2:33 Priapulida, 2:5 Proboscidea, 2:59

Procambarus clarkii. See Red swamp crayfish Prochaetodermayongei, 2:381, 2:384, 2:385 Prokaryotes, 2:8

See also specific prokaryotes Proplina spp., 2:387 Prosobranchs, 2:17 Proterospongia spp., 2:12 Protists, 2:11-12 Protobranchia, 2:451 Protomyzostomatidae, 2:59 Protostomes behavior, 2:35-40 defined, 2:3-6 diversity of, 2:25 evolution, 2:7-14, 2:9, 2:10 feeding ecology, 2:29, 2:36-37 humans and, 2:41-44 reproduction, 2:14-24, 2:31-32 taxonomy, 2:4-5, 2:11-14 See also specific species and topics Pseudeuphausia spp., 2:185 Pseudione spp., 2:252 Pseudococculina, 2:429 Pseudocoelomates, 2:35 Pseudocumatidae, 2:229 Pseudopodia, 2:12 Pseudoscorpiones, 2:333 Ptenoglossa, 2:445 Pteriidae, 2:451, 2:454 Pteriomorphia, 2:451 Pulmonata, 2:411-422, 2:416 behavior, 2:414 conservation status, 2:414 distribution, 2:413 evolution, 2:411 feeding ecology, 2:414 habitats, 2:413-414 humans and, 2:414-415 physical characteristics, 2:412, 2:413 reproduction, 2:16, 2:414 species of, 2:417-421 taxonomy, 2:411-413

Pulvinomyzostomatidae, 2:59 Pulvinomyzostomum pulvinar, 2:61, 2:62 Punciidae, 2:311 Punctum pygmaeum, 2:413 Pupa solidula, 2:406, 2:407 Purse web spiders, 2:338, 2:342-343 Pycnogonida. See Sea spiders Pycnogonum littorale, 2:322 Pygocephalomorpha, 2:215, 2:225

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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