M

Macrobdella decora. See North American medicinal leeches Macrobiotus spp., 2:116 Macrobiotus hufelandi, 2:116, 2:118 Macrobiotus richtersi, 2:117 Macrocheira kaempferi. See Giant Japanese spider crabs Macroherbivory feeding, 2:36

See also Feeding ecology Macromeres, 2:3, 2:20 Macroperipatus torquatus, 2:37 Magnificent Calypto clams. See Giant vent clams

Malacostraca, 2:185, 2:197 Malaria, 2:11-12, 2:31

See also Humans Malzahn, E., 2:161 Mangrove crabs, 2:203, 2:205, 2:212 Mantis shrimps, 2:167-175, 2:172 behavior, 2:169-170 conservation status, 2:171 distribution, 2:168 evolution, 2:167 feeding ecology, 2:170 habitats, 2:168 humans and, 2:171 physical characteristics, 2:167-168 reproduction, 2:170-171 species of, 2:173-175 taxonomy, 2:167 Margaritifera margaritifera. See European pearly mussels Margaritiferidae, 2:451 Marine bryozoans, 2:503-508, 2:505, 2:509-514, 2:512 behavior, 2:504, 2:509 conservation status, 2:504, 2:511 distribution, 2:503-504, 2:509 evolution, 2:503, 2:509 feeding ecology, 2:504, 2:510 habitats, 2:504, 2:509 humans and, 2:504, 2:511 physical characteristics, 2:503, 2:509 reproduction, 2:504, 2:510-511 species of, 2:506-508, 2:513-514 taxonomy, 2:503, 2:509 Marine decapods, 2:199

See also Decapoda Marine leeches, 2:76

See also Leeches Marine prosobranchs, 2:17 Marine snails, 2:24s sea slugs, 2:403-410, 2:406 Vetigastropoda, 2:429-434, 2:432 See also Lung-bearing snails; True limpets Marine tardigrades, 2:115, 2:116

Maritigrella fuscopunctata. See Tiger flatworms Masted crabs, 2:26

Mastigoproctus giganteus. See Giant whip scorpions Mastigoteuthis magna, 2:481, 2:486 Maturation, sexual, 2:21-24

See also Reproduction Maxillopoda, 2:273, 2:283, 2:295, 2:299 Medicinal leeches, 2:75, 2:76, 2:77 European, 2:75, 2:77-78, 2:79, 2:80-81 North American, 2:79, 2:81-82 Medicines. See Pharmaceuticals Mediterranean pen shells. See Noble pen shells

Megaledone spp., 2:478 Meganyctiphanes spp., 2:185 Meganyctiphanes norvegica. See Nordic krill Megascolecidae, 2:65, 2:66 Megascolides australis. See Gippsland giant worms

Mercenaria mercenaria. See Northern quahogs

Merostomata. See Horseshoe crabs Mesentoblasts, 2:3-4 Mesobdella gemmata, 2:78 Mesocyclops leuckarti, 2:303, 2:306-307 Mesoderm, 2:3, 2:13, 2:15, 2:20, 2:35

See also Physical characteristics Mesomeres, 2:20 Mesomyzostomatidae, 2:59 Mesotardigrada. See Thermozodium esakii Mesozoa, 2:33 Messenger, J. B., 2:477-478 Mesurethra, 2:411, 2:412 Metallic hunting wasps, 2:37 Metamorphosis, 2:21 Microchaetidae, 2:65 Microdajidae, 2:284 Microdajus langi, 2:283, 2:285, 2:286 Microdictyon spp., 2:109 Microhexura montivaga. See Spruce-fir moss spiders Micromeres, 2:20

Micropilina arntzi, 2:389, 2:390-391 Microplana termitophaga, 2:37 Microscopy, 2:4 Mictaceans, 2:241-242 Mictocaris halope, 2:241, 2:242 Migration, 2:25

See also Behavior Millipedes, 2:25, 2:363-373, 2:366 behavior, 2:364-365 conservation status, 2:365 distribution, 2:364 evolution, 2:363 feeding ecology, 2:365 habitats, 2:364 humans and, 2:365 locomotion, 2:19

physical characteristics, 2:18, 2:363-364 reproduction, 2:23, 2:365 species of, 2:367-370 taxonomy, 2:363 Millotauropodidae, 2:375 Milnesium tardigradum. See Large carnivorous water bears Mimicry, 2:37-38 See also Behavior Misophrioida, 2:299

Mites, 2:333-352 behavior, 2:335 conservation status, 2:336 distribution, 2:335 evolution, 2:333 feeding ecology, 2:335 habitats, 2:335 humans and, 2:336 physical characteristics, 2:333-334 reproduction, 2:335 taxonomy, 2:333 Mitochondria, 2:8 Mitrella carinata, 2:264 Molecular clock, 2:10-11 Molecular systematics, 2:4-5, 2:13-14

See also Taxonomy Mollusks, 2:3, 2:25 evolution, 2:9-10, 2:13-14 feeding ecology, 2:29 humans and, 2:41 parasitism and, 2:33 reproduction, 2:17, 2:21, 2:23-24 taxonomy, 2:35 See also specific mollusks Molting animals. See Ecdysozoa Monarch butterflies, 2:27 Monilifera, 2:85, 2:86 Moniligastridae, 2:65 Monophyly, 2:7

Monoplacophorans, 2:387-391, 2:389

Monstrilla grandis, 2:302, 2:309

Monstrilloida, 2:299

Mopalia muscosa. See Mossy chitons

Moray eels, 2:37

Moreton Bay bugs. See Flathead locust lobsters Mormonilloida, 2:299 Morulae, spermatogenic, 2:17

See also Reproduction Mosaic development, 2:35 Mossy chitons, 2:395, 2:396, 2:399, 2:400 Motility, sperm, 2:16-17

See also Reproduction Motyxia spp., 2:365 Mouths, 2:3, 2:21, 2:35

See also Physical characteristics Mud crabs. See Mangrove crabs Mud shrimps, 2:197, 2:198 Multicellularity, 2:19 Munna armoricana, 2:249 Murex, 2:41, 2:447 Muricidae, 2:447

Mussel shrimps, 2:36, 2:311-315, 2:312, 2:313 Mussels, 2:25, 2:43, 2:454 common blue, 2:455, 2:458-459 European pearly, 2:455, 2:462-463 freshwater, 2:451, 2:453-454 freshwater pearl, 2:454 See also Bivalves; specific types of mussels Mutualism, 2:32, 2:33-34

See also Behavior Mygalomorph spiders, 2:37 Myodocopida, 2:311, 2:312 Myopsida. See Inshore squids Myriapoda, 2:25, 2:353, 2:371 Mysidae, 2:215 Mysids, 2:215-223, 2:218 behavior, 2:216 conservation status, 2:217

distribution, 2:216 evolution, 2:215 feeding ecology, 2:216-217 habitats, 2:216 humans and, 2:217 physical characteristics, 2:215 reproduction, 2:217 species of, 2:219-222 taxonomy, 2:215 Mysinae, 2:215

Mysis relicta, 2:215, 2:218, 2:219, 2:221 Mystacocarids, 2:295-297 Mythology, protostomes in, 2:41-42

See also Humans Mytilidae, 2:451, 2:452 Mytilus spp. See Mussels Mytilus edulis. See Common blue mussels Myzostoma cirriferum, 2:61, 2:62 Myzostoma parasiticum, 2:59 Myzostoma polycyclus, 2:59 Myzostomatidae. See Proboscidea Myzostomids, 2:31-32, 2:59-63, 2:61, 2:62

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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