L

Labroides spp., 2:34 Lace corals, 2:509, 2:510 Laevipilina antarctica, 2:387, 2:389, 2:390 LAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate), 2:42 Lamellibrachia spp., 2:91 Lamellibrachia luymesi, 2:92, 2:93, 2:94 Lamellibrachia satsuma, 2:91 Lampropidae, 2:229 Lampshells, 2:13, 2:25, 2:29, 2:524, 2:526-527

articulate, 2:521-527, 2:524 nonarticulate, 2:515-519, 2:517 Land crabs, 2:200, 2:201 Land snails. See Giant African land snails;

Lung-bearing snails Lanice conchilega. See Sand masons Laqueus californianus. See California lampshells Large carnivorous water bears, 2:116, 2:117,

See also Reproduction Lasionectes entrichoma, 2:125, 2:127, 2:128 Laternaria laternaria. See Peanut bugs Latia neritoides. See New Zealand freshwater limpets

Latrodectus hesperus. See Black widow spiders Leader prawns. See Giant tiger prawns Leaf cutter ants, 2:36 Learning, 2:39-40 See also Behavior Lecithotrophic larvae, 2:21

See also Reproduction Leeches, 2:25, 2:75-83, 2:79 behavior, 2:76 conservation status, 2:77-78 distribution, 2:76 evolution, 2:75 feeding ecology, 2:29, 2:76 habitats, 2:76 humans and, 2:78 medical use of, 2:42 physical characteristics, 2:75-76, 2:77 reproduction, 2:16, 2:17, 2:77 species of, 2:80-83 taxonomy, 2:75 Leiperia spp., 2:317, 2:319, 2:320 Leishmania spp., 2:11 Leishmaniasis, 2:11

Lepas anatifera. See Common goose barnacles

Lepeophtheirus salmonis. See Salmon lice

Lepetella laterocompressa, 2:436

Lepetelloidea, 2:429

Lepetidae, 2:423

Lepetodrilus elevatus, 2:432, 2:433

Lepidomysidae. See Spelaeomysis spp. Lepidurus spp., 2:141, 2:142 Lepidurus arcticus, 2:142 Lepidurus packardi. See Vernal pool tadpole shrimps Leptestheriidae, 2:147 Leptodora kindtii, 2:153 Leptostracans, 2:161-166, 2:163 Lesser octopods, 2:27 Leuckart, 2:59 Levinebalia spp., 2:161 Levinebalia maria, 2:163, 2:164, 2:165 Lichens, 2:41 Life, origins of, 2:8-11 Life cycles. See Reproduction Life histories, 2:15-24 See also Reproduction Light, 2:26-27

See also Habitats Light-shrimps. See Krill Lightiellidae, 2:131 Ligia spp., 2:249, 2:250, 2:251 Ligidae, 2:250

Limax spp. See Garden slugs Limax maximus. See Great gray slugs Limidae, 2:452

Limiting factors, ecological, 2:25-27 Limnadia lenticularis, 2:147 Limnadiidae, 2:147 Limnoria spp., 2:252 Limnoria quadripunctata. See Gribbles Limpets, 2:439 deep-sea, 2:435-437 New Zealand freshwater, 2:416, 2:417 true, 2:423-427, 2:426, 2:427 See also Neritopsina Limulidae. See Horseshoe crabs Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), 2:42 Limulus polyphemus. See American horseshoe crabs

Lined chitons, 2:393, 2:396, 2:398-399 Linguatuidae. See Linguatula spp. Linguatula spp., 2:318, 2:319, 2:320 Linguatula arctica, 2:319 Linguatula serrata, 2:319, 2:320 Lingula spp., 2:515, 2:516 Lingulidae, 2:515-516 Linguliformea, 2:515 Linnaeus, Carl, 2:8 Linnaeus's pea crabs. See Pea crabs Lipostraca, 2:135

Lirceus fontinalis, 2:253, 2:255, 2:256 Lirimiris spp., 2:38 Lironeca spp., 2:252

Lissachatina fulica. See Giant African land snails

Literature, protostomes in, 2:41-42

See also Humans Lithobiomorpha, 2:353, 2:354, 2:355, 2:356 Lithobius forficatus. See Stone centipedes "Little Miss Muffet," 2:41 Littleneck clams. See Northern quahogs Littorina spp., 2:446 Littorinidae, 2:446 Littorinimorpha, 2:445 Loboglomeris pyrenaica, 2:365 Lobsters, 2:197-214, 2:202 behavior, 2:36, 2:199-200 conservation status, 2:201 distribution, 2:199

evolution, 2:197-198 feeding ecology, 2:200 habitats, 2:199 humans and, 2:201 physical characteristics, 2:198 reproduction, 2:17, 2:201 species of, 2:204-214 taxonomy, 2:197-198 Locomotion, 2:19

See also Behavior; Physical characteristics Loligo spp. See Squids

Loligo opalescens. See California market squids Loligo pealeii. See Longfin inshore squids Long-bodied cellar spiders, 2:338, 2:341, 2:346

See also Common harvestmen Long-horned beach hoppers. See Beach hoppers

Long-legged cellar spiders. See Long-bodied cellar spiders Longfin inshore squids, 2:481, 2:482-483 Longfinned squids. See Longfin inshore squids Longhorn beetles, 2:38 Longipeditermes longipes, 2:36 Longtail tadpole shrimps, 2:143, 2:144, 2:145, 2:146

Lophogastridae, 2:225 Lophogastrids, 2:225-228 Lophophores, 2:25, 2:29

See also Physical characteristics Lophopodidae, 2:497 Lophotrochozoa. See Ciliated animals Lord Vinshu, 2:42 Lottia alveus, 2:425 Lottia pelta. See Shield limpets Lottiidae, 2:423, 2:424 Louisiana crayfish. See Red swamp crayfish Lucinidae, 2:453 Lugworms, 2:48, 2:51-52 Lulus spp. See Millipedes Lumbricidae, 2:65, 2:66 Lumbricus spp. See Earthworms Lumbricus terrestris. See European night crawlers

Lung-bearing slugs, 2:411-422, 2:416 behavior, 2:414 conservation status, 2:414 distribution, 2:413, 2:418 evolution, 2:411 feeding ecology, 2:414 habitats, 2:413-414 humans and, 2:414-415 physical characteristics, 2:413 reproduction, 2:414 species of, 2:419-421 taxonomy, 2:411-413 Lung-bearing snails, 2:25, 2:411-422, 2:416 behavior, 2:5, 2:414 conservation status, 2:414 distribution, 2:413 evolution, 2:411 feeding ecology, 2:414 habitats, 2:413-414 humans and, 2:414-415 physical characteristics, 2:412, 2:413 reproduction, 2:414 species of, 2:417-421 taxonomy, 2:411-413 Luolishania spp., 2:109

Lutodrilidae, 2:65

Lycosidae. See Wolf spiders

Lymnaeidae, 2:412

Lynceidae, 2:147, 2:148

Lynceus gracilicornis. See Graceful clam shrimps Lysiosquilldea, 2:168, 2:170 Lysiosquillina maculata, 2:172, 2:173-174 Lysiosquilloidea, 2:168, 2:171

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

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