I

Chlorion lobatum. See Metallic hunting wasps

Choanoflagellates, 2:12

Chonopeltis spp., 2:289

Chordates, 2:3, 2:11

Chordoma, 2:4

Chowder clams. See Northern quahogs Chromodoris willani, 2:405 Chthamalus stellatus, 2:28 Cicadas, 2:36

Cirolana spp., 2:251

Cirolanidae, 2:249

Cirrata. See Finned octopods

Cirratulids, 2:46, 2:47

Cirripedes. See Barnacles

CITES. See Convention on International

Trade in Endangered Species Cladistics. See Taxonomy Cladocera. See Water fleas Clam shrimps, 2:147-151, 2:149 Clams, 2:36, 2:451, 2:454 Asian, 2:454

giant vent, 2:456, 2:462, 2:466 skeletons, 2:18 yo-yo, 2:455, 2:461, 2:465 See also Bivalves; specific types of clams Clamworms, 2:25, 2:45-57, 2:48, 2:49 behavior, 2:46 conservation status, 2:47 distribution, 2:46 evolution, 2:45 feeding ecology, 2:46-47 habitats, 2:46 humans and, 2:47 physical characteristics, 2:45-46 reproduction, 2:47 species of, 2:50-56 taxonomy, 2:45 See also Ragworms Clarke, Bryan, 2:411 Classic theory, of origin of life, 2:8 Classical conditioning, 2:40

See also Behavior Classification. See Taxonomy Clavagellidae, 2:451 Clawed lobsters, 2:197 Cleaner organisms, 2:33-34 Cleavage, 2:3, 2:4, 2:15-16, 2:18-21, 2:23-24, 2:35

See also Reproduction Clitellata, 2:23, 2:65 Clown fishes, 2:34

Clown shrimps. See Harlequin shrimps Clyptraeidae, 2:446 Cnidarians, 2:9, 2:12-13, 2:15, 2:32 Cobweb spiders. See Long-bodied cellar spiders

Cocculina japonica. See Japanese deep-sea limpets Cocculinidae, 2:435 Cocculiniformia. See Deep-sea limpets Cocculinoidea, 2:435, 2:436 Cockles, 2:454

See also Bivalves Cockroaches, 2:25 Coeloblastula, 2:21, 2:23 Coelom, 2:3-4, 2:15-16, 2:21, 2:35 Coeloplanids, 2:32 Cold seep worms, 2:91-95, 2:93 Coleoidea, 2:475

Colonial theory, 2:12

See also Evolution Coloration, flash, 2:38-39

See also Behavior Colossendeis megalonyx, 2:323, 2:324 Columbellidae, 2:446 Comatulid crinoids, 2:32, 2:33 Comb jellies, 2:12-13 Commensalism, 2:32, 2:33

See also Behavior Common barnacles. See Acorn barnacles Common blue mussels, 2:455, 2:458-459 Common cuttlefishes, 2:481, 2:486-487 Common European octopods. See Common octopods

Common field worms, 2:69, 2:70-71 Common goose barnacles, 2:32, 2:274, 2:277, 2:280

Common harvestmen, 2:338, 2:345-346

See also Long-bodied cellar spiders Common hermit crabs, 2:203, 2:207, 2:210-211 Common limpets, 2:426-2:427 Common mussels. See Common blue mussels Common nautilus. See Pearly nautilus Common octopods, 2:37, 2:475, 2:477, 2:478,

2:479, 2:481, 2:484-485 Common pill woodlice, 2:249, 2:250, 2:253, 2:254-255

Common pygmy woodlice, 2:253, 2:257, 2:259-260

Common rough woodlice, 2:253, 2:258-259 Common shiny woodlice, 2:253, 2:254,

2:257-258 Common shipworms, 2:456, 2:457 Common striped scorpions. See Striped scorpions Common water fleas, 2:156, 2:158 Competition, 2:28-29

See also Behavior Competitive exclusion, 2:28 Conchostraca. See Clam shrimps Conchs, 2:43 Conditioned stimuli, 2:40

See also Behavior Cone shells, 2:29, 2:41, 2:446, 2:447, 2:448,

2:449 Conidae, 2:446 Conotoxin, 2:29 Conservation status, 2:43 amphionids, 2:196 amphipods, 2:262, 2:265-271 anaspidaceans, 2:182, 2:183 aplacophorans, 2:380, 2:382-385 Arachnida, 2:336, 2:340-352 articulate lampshells, 2:523, 2:525-527 bathynellaceans, 2:178, 2:179 beard worms, 2:86, 2:88 bivalves, 2:454, 2:458-466 caenogastropods, 2:447, 2:449 centipedes, 2:356, 2:358-362 cephalocarids, 2:132, 2:133 Cephalopoda, 2:479, 2:483, 2:485-489 chitons, 2:395, 2:398-401 clam shrimps, 2:148, 2:150-151 copepods, 2:300, 2:304-310 cumaceans, 2:230, 2:232 Decapoda, 2:201, 2:204-214 deep-sea limpets, 2:436, 2:437 earthworms, 2:67, 2:70-73 echiurans, 2:104, 2:107

fairy shrimps, 2:137, 2:139-140

fish lice, 2:290, 2:292-293

freshwater bryozoans, 2:498, 2:500-502

horseshoe crabs, 2:328, 2:331-332

Isopoda, 2:252, 2:255-260

leptostracans, 2:162, 2:164-165

lophogastrids, 2:226, 2:227

mantis shrimps, 2:171, 2:173-175

marine bryozoans, 2:504, 2:506-508, 2:511,

2:513-514 mictaceans, 2:241, 2:242 millipedes, 2:365, 2:367-370 monoplacophorans, 2:388, 2:390-391 mussel shrimps, 2:312, 2:314-315 mysids, 2:217, 2:219-222 mystacocarids, 2:296, 2:297 myzostomids, 2:60, 2:62 Neritopsina, 2:441, 2:442-443 nonarticulate lampshells, 2:516, 2:518-519 Onychophora, 2:111, 2:113-114 pauropods, 2:376, 2:377 peanut worms, 2:98, 2:100-101 phoronids, 2:492, 2:494 Polychaeta, 2:47, 2:50-56 Pulmonata, 2:414, 2:417-421 remipedes, 2:126, 2:128 sea slugs, 2:405, 2:407-410 sea spiders, 2:322, 2:324-325 spelaeogriphaceans, 2:243, 2:244 symphylans, 2:372, 2:373 tadpole shrimps, 2:142, 2:145-146 tanaids, 2:236, 2:238-239 tantulocaridans, 2:284, 2:286 Thecostraca, 2:276, 2:278-281 thermosbaenaceans, 2:246, 2:247 tongue worms, 2:320 true limpets, 2:425, 2:426-427 tusk shells, 2:470, 2:473-474 Vestimentifera, 2:92, 2:94-95 Vetigastropoda, 2:431, 2:433-434 water bears, 2:118, 2:121-123 water fleas, 2:155, 2:157-158 Conus geographus. See Geography cone shells Conus marmoreus, 2:447 Conus textile, 2:447 Conus tulipus, 2:447

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species bivalves, 2:454 emperor scorpions, 2:351 European medicinal leeches, 2:81 giant clams, 2:464 leeches, 2:78 Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic

Marine Living Resources, 2:190 Convergent evolution, 2:7

See also Evolution Coopers of the sea, 2:263, 2:269, 2:270 Copepods, 2:299-310, 2:302, 2:303 behavior, 2:300 conservation status, 2:300 distribution, 2:300 evolution, 2:299 feeding ecology, 2:36, 2:300 habitats, 2:300 humans and, 2:300-301 physical characteristics, 2:299-300 reproduction, 2:300

species of, 2:304-310 taxonomy, 2:299 Copiphorinae, 2:36 Copulation, 2:17, 2:23-24

See also Reproduction Coquina clams, 2:451, 2:456, 2:463, 2:464 Coral reefs, conservation of, 2:30 Corals, lace, 2:509, 2:510 Corbicula spp. See Asian clams Coreidae. See Flag-legged insects Corolla spectabilis, 2:406, 2:408, 2:409-410 Coronarctidae, 2:117 Corystes cassivelaunus. See Masted crabs Cove oysters. See Eastern American oysters Cowries, 2:41, 2:447 Crab spiders, 2:38

Crabs, 2:25, 2:197-214, 2:202, 2:203 behavior, 2:32, 2:35, 2:43, 2:199-200 conservation status, 2:43, 2:201 distribution, 2:199 evolution, 2:197-198 feeding ecology, 2:200 habitats, 2:199 humans and, 2:42, 2:201 physical characteristics, 2:198 reproduction, 2:16, 2:201 species of, 2:204-214 taxonomy, 2:197-198 Cranchiids, 2:476

Crangon septemspinosa. See Sevenspine bay shrimps Craniidae, 2:515, 2:516 Craniiformea. See Craniidae Craniscus spp., 2:515 Crassiclitellata, 2:65

Crassostrea virginica. See Eastern American oysters

Craterostigmomorpha, 2:353, 2:356 Craterostigmus tasmanianus. See Tasmanian remarkables Crayfish, 2:25, 2:197, 2:199, 2:200, 2:201 Crinoids, 2:32, 2:33

Crisia eburna. See Joint-tubed bryozoans Cristatellidae, 2:497 Crisulipora occidentalis, 2:503 Crustacea, 2:25 behavior, 2:19, 2:32, 2:36 feeding ecology, 2:36 as food, 2:41

physical characteristics, 2:18 reproduction, 2:17, 2:21, 2:23 See also specific crustaceans Cryptochiton stelleri. See Gumboot chitons Cryptochitons, 2:395 Cryptops hortensis. See Blind scolopenders Ctenocheilocaris spp., 2:295 Ctenophora. See Comb jellies Ctenostomata, 2:509 Cubirea spp., 2:318, 2:320 Cumaceans, 2:229-233, 2:231 Curtis, Edward, 2:471 Cuspidariidae, 2:453

Cuttlefishes, 2:475-481, 2:481, 2:486-487 behavior, 2:37, 2:477-478 conservation status, 2:479 distribution, 2:477 evolution, 2:475 feeding ecology, 2:478 habitats, 2:477 humans and, 2:479-480

physical characteristics, 2:475-477 reproduction, 2:478-479 species of, 2:486-487 taxonomy, 2:475 Cyamids, 2:261

Cyamus scammoni. See Gray whale lice Cyclaspis longicaudata, 2:231, 2:232 Cyclestheria hislopi, 2:149, 2:150 Cyclestheriidae, 2:147, 2:148 Cyclomya, 2:387 Cyclophoroidea, 2:445, 2:446 Cyclopidae, 2:299 Cyclopoida, 2:299 Cyclops spp., 2:300 Cyclops viridis, 2:299 Cyclostomata. See Stenolaemata Cylicobdellidae, 2:76 Cypraeidae, 2:446 Cystisoma fabricii, 2:264, 2:269-270 Cystisoma pellucidum, 2:264 Cyzicidae, 2:147

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