Yze

Scina borealis, 2:263, 2:268, 2:271 Scissurelloidea, 2:430 Sclerolinum brattstromi, 2:86 Scolopenders, 2:357, 2:360, 2:361-362 Scolopendra spp., 2:355 Scolopendra abnormis, 2:356 Scolopendra morsitans. See Scolopenders Scolopendrellidae, 2:371 Scolopendridae, 2:355 Scolopendromorpha, 2:353, 2:354, 2:356 Scorpio spp. See Scorpions Scorpions, 2:25, 2:333-352, 2:337 behavior, 2:335 conservation status, 2:336 distribution, 2:335 evolution, 2:333 feeding ecology, 2:335 habitats, 2:335 humans and, 2:336 physical characteristics, 2:333-334 reproduction, 2:20, 2:335 species of, 2:345-352 taxonomy, 2:333 Scuds, 2:262 Scurria spp., 2:423

Scutigera coleoptrata. See House centipedes

Scutigerella spp., 2:371

Scutigerella immaculata. See Garden symphylans Scutigerellidae, 2:371 Scutigeromorpha, 2:353, 2:355, 2:356 Scuttles. See Common octopods Scylla serrata. See Mangrove crabs Sea anemones, 2:34, 2:36 Sea cucumbers, 2:38 Sea mats, 2:512, 2:513, 2:514 Sea-mice, 2:45 Sea slugs, 2:403-410, 2:406 behavior, 2:403-404 conservation status, 2:405 distribution, 2:403 evolution, 2:403 feeding ecology, 2:404-405 habitats, 2:403 humans and, 2:43, 2:405 physical characteristics, 2:403, 2:404 reproduction, 2:405 species of, 2:407-410 taxonomy, 2:403 Sea spiders, 2:321, 2:321-325, 2:323 Sea stars, 2:36 Sealice, 2:300, 2:301 Sebekia spp., 2:317-318 Sebekidae, 2:317-318 Seepiophila spp., 2:91 Segmentation, 2:14 Segmented worms. See Annelida Selfia spp., 2:317 Semaphore crabs, 2:29 Semibalanus balanoides. See Acorn barnacles Sensitization, 2:39 See also Behavior Sepia officinalis. See Common cuttlefishes Sepiida. See Cuttlefishes Sepioids, 2:479 Sepiolida, 2:475 Septaria spp., 2:440 Sequenzoidea, 2:429 Sergestoidea, 2:197 Serpula vermicularis. See Tubeworms

Serpulids, 2:46, 2:47

Serrated swimming crabs. See Mangrove crabs Sessile barnacles, 2:273, 2:274, 2:275 Sevenspine bay shrimps, 2:202, 2:205 Sexual dimorphism, 2:23 Shellfish, as food, 2:41

See also specific shellfish Shellfish poisoning, 2:12 Shells cone, 2:446, 2:447 geography cone, 2:447, 2:448, 2:449 slit, 2:429-434 top, 2:429-434, 2:432 tusk, 2:469-474, 2:472 watering pot, 2:456, 2:458, 2:460 Shepherd spiders. See Long-bodied cellar spiders Shield limpets, 2:426-427 Shield shrimps, 2:142 Ship's worms. See Common shipworms Shipworms, 2:43, 2:454 Shore crabs, 2:25, 2:26 Shrimps, 2:197-214, 2:202, 2:203 behavior, 2:32, 2:33-34, 2:43, 2:199-200 clam, 2:147-151 conservation status, 2:43, 2:201 distribution, 2:199 evolution, 2:197-198 fairy, 2:135-140 feeding ecology, 2:29, 2:200 habitats, 2:199 humans and, 2:201 mantis, 2:167-175 mussel, 2:311-315 physical characteristics, 2:198 reproduction, 2:17, 2:201 species of, 2:204-214 tadpole, 2:141-146 taxonomy, 2:197-198 Siboglinum fiordicum. See Norwegian tubeworms Siboglinum poseidoni, 2:86 Sigmoria aberrans, 2:363 Sigmurethra, 2:411 Siphonaridae, 2:414 Siphonophora millepeda, 2:363 Siphonophoridae, 2:365 Siphonostomatoida, 2:299 Sipuncula. See Peanut worms Sipunculidae, 2:97 Sipunculus spp., 2:98 Sipunculus nudus, 2:99, 2:100-101 Siriella spp., 2:216

Skeleton shrimps, 2:261, 2:263, 2:265 Skeletons, 2:18

See also Physical characteristics Skeneoidea, 2:430, 2:431 Skinner, B. F., 2:35 Slaters, 2:249-260 behavior, 2:250-251 conservation status, 2:252 distribution, 2:250 evolution, 2:249 feeding ecology, 2:251-252 habitats, 2:250 humans and, 2:252 physical characteristics, 2:249-250 reproduction, 2:252 taxonomy, 2:249 Slipper lobsters, 2:197, 2:198

Slit shells, 2:429-434 Slugs, 2:439 lung-bearing, 2:411-422, 2:416 sea, 2:403-410, 2:406 See also Neritopsina Smaragdia viridis, 2:439, 2:440 Smaragdiinae, 2:440 Smooth-headed scorpions, 2:333 Smooth lampshells. See California lampshells Snails caenogastropods, 2:445-449, 2:448

feeding ecology, 2:36

golden apple, 2:28

humans and, 2:41

locomotion, 2:19

lung-bearing, 2:411-422, 2:412, 2:416 reproduction, 2:18, 2:23 sea slugs, 2:403-410, 2:406 skeletons, 2:18

true limpets, 2:423-427, 2:426, 2:427 Vetigastropoda, 2:429-434, 2:432 See also Neritopsina; specific types of snails Snake millipedes, 2:365, 2:366, 2:367, 2:368 Snapping shrimps. See Pistol shrimps Social insects, 2:37

Soldier crabs. See Common hermit crabs Solemyidae, 2:451, 2:453 Solenidae, 2:452

Solenogasters. See Aplacophorans Solenogastres. See Neomeniomorpha Solpugida, 2:333 Sorbeoconcha, 2:445, 2:446 Southern coquinas. See Coquina clams Southern krill. See Antarctic krill Southward, Eve C., 2:92 Sowbugs, 2:249, 2:250, 2:251 Spallanzani, 2:117, 2:118 Spanish slugs, 2:416, 2:418, 2:419-420 Spanner crabs, 2:203, 2:209, 2:212-213 Sparganophilidae, 2:65 Spawning, 2:17-18, 2:23-24, 2:27

See also Reproduction Species interactions, 2:28 Specific symbiosis, 2:31

See also Behavior Spelaeogriphaceans, 2:243-244 Spelaeogriphidae, 2:243 Spelaeogriphus lepidops, 2:243, 2:244 Spelaeomysis spp., 2:215 Spelaeomysis bottazzii, 2:218, 2:219-220 Speleonectes gironensis, 2:126, 2:127, 2:128 Speleonectes lucayensis, 2:126 Speonebalia spp., 2:161 Sperm, 2:16-17, 2:23

See also Reproduction Sperm whale lice, 2:263, 2:266-267 Spermatogenesis, 2:16-17

See also Reproduction Spermatogenic morulae, 2:17

See also Reproduction Spermatophores, 2:17, 2:23

See also Reproduction Sphaeroeca spp., 2:12 Sphaeroma spp., 2:252 Sphaeroma terebrans, 2:250, 2:253, 2:258, 2:259

Sphaeromatidae, 2:252 Sphaerotheriida, 2:365 Spider-Man comics, 2:41

Spiders, 2:25, 2:333-352, 2:338 behavior, 2:36, 2:37, 2:335 conservation status, 2:336 distribution, 2:335 evolution, 2:333 feeding ecology, 2:335 habitats, 2:335 humans and, 2:41, 2:336 physical characteristics, 2:333-334 reproduction, 2:23, 2:335 sea, 2:321-325 species of, 2:339-351 taxonomy, 2:333 Spiny lobsters, 2:197, 2:198, 2:200 Spiny prawns. See Banded coral shrimps Spiomenia spiculata, 2:381, 2:382, 2:383 Spionidae, 2:46, 2:47 Spiral cleavage, 2:3, 2:4, 2:19-20, 2:35

See also Reproduction Spiralia. See Spiral cleavage Spiraxids, 2:414 Spirobolids, 2:364 Spirobolus spp., 2:365 Spirorbids, 2:32, 2:46, 2:47 Spirostreptids, 2:364 Spirula spirula. See Ram's horn squids Spirulida. See Ram's horn squids Split-toes. See Mantis shrimps Spondylidae, 2:452 Sponges, 2:15 behavior, 2:36 evolution, 2:9, 2:12 symbiosis, 2:32 Spoon worms, 2:24, 2:103, 2:104 Spruce-fir moss spiders, 2:338, 2:340, 2:343 Squids, 2:25, 2:475-483, 2:478, 2:481, 2:486-489

behavior, 2:37, 2:477-478 conservation status, 2:479 distribution, 2:477 evolution, 2:475 feeding ecology, 2:478 habitats, 2:477

humans and, 2:42, 2:479-480 locomotion, 2:19

physical characteristics, 2:475-477 reproduction, 2:17, 2:23, 2:478-479 species of, 2:482-483, 2:486-489 taxonomy, 2:475 Squilla mantis, 2:171 Squilloidea, 2:168, 2:171 Stalk-less barnacles. See Acorn barnacles Stalked barnacles, 2:275, 2:276 Startle displays, 2:38-39

See also Behavior Stauroteuthis syrtensis, 2:481, 2:485 Stegias clibanarii, 2:252 Stelechopidae, 2:59 Stenolaemata, 2:503-508, 2:505 Stenopodidea. See Boxer shrimps Stenopterygius spp. See Ichthyosaurs Stenopus hispidus. See Banded coral shrimps Stenorhynchus seticornis. See Yellowline arrow crabs

Stenothecoides spp., 2:387 Stereoblastulas, 2:20-21 Stilifer spp., 2:32 Stilifer linckiae, 2:33

Stoloteuthis leucoptera. See Butterfly bobtail squids Stomatopoda. See Mantis shrimps

Stone centipedes, 2:357, 2:360-361 Stratiodrilus spp., 2:46 Streptaxidae, 2:411

Streptocephalidae, 2:135, 2:136, 2:137

Streptocephalus spp., 2:137 Streptocephalus proboscideus. See Sudanese fairy shrimps

Striped bark scorpions. See Striped scorpions Striped scorpions, 2:337, 2:349-350 Strombidae, 2:446 Strombus spp., 2:447 Strophocheilus spp., 2:414 Structural diseases, 2:33 Stygiomysidae. See Stygiomysis spp. Stygiomysis spp., 2:215 Stygiomysis cokei, 2:216, 2:218, 2:220, 2:221-222 Stygiomysis hydruntina, 2:217 Stygocarididae, 2:181 Stygocaridinea, 2:181 Stylocheiron spp., 2:185 Stylommatophora, 2:411, 2:412, 2:413 Styraconyx spp., 2:117-118 Subtriquetra spp., 2:318, 2:319 Subtriquetridae. See Subtriquetra spp. Subulinidae, 2:411 Succinea spp., 2:413 Succineidae, 2:411-412 Suckerfishes, 2:31

Sudanese fairy shrimps, 2:138, 2:139-140 Sunlight. See Light Superficial cleavage, 2:20, 2:23

See also Reproduction Survivorship, 2:27

See also Reproduction Suspension feeding, 2:29, 2:36

See also Feeding ecology Syllids, 2:47 Symbionts, 2:31 Symbiosis, 2:31-34 See also Behavior Symphylans, 2:371-373 Synagoga n.sp., 2:273 Synalpheus spp. See Pistol shrimps Synapomorphy. See Homology Syncytial theory, 2:12

See also Evolution Systellommatophora, 2:412-413, 2:414 Systema Naturae, 2:8 Systematics. See Taxonomy

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