In marine and freshwater realms, neritopsines are typically associated with hard substrates such as coral, beach rock, basalt outcrops and cobbles, and others. Several taxa (Smarag-diinae) are also associated with marine angiosperms in shallow near-shore marine habitats. Two terrestrial invasions, the Helicinidae and the Hydrocenidae, are both associated with moist forest floors and the trunks of trees. The Helicinidae are also found in xeric habitats, and may be partially or completely aboreal. Both terrestrial groups are often associated with limestone geologies. Multiple freshwater invasions have also occurred within the Neritidae, including the Septaria of freshwater streams on tropical Pacific islands and the radiation of Theodoxus species in the river systems of Europe and central Asia. In the tropical Pacific, some freshwater taxa still have an estuarine or marine period in their larval phase before returning to freshwater streams and rivers. Neritopsines also occur in the deep sea, and are associated with dysoxyic habitats and vent and seep communities.
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