Distribution and conservation status vary among cephalo-pod species. Some coastal species are quite common whereas others, especially among the oceanic fauna, are rarely encountered. Small-scale endemism (confinement to a specific locality) is uncommon, although endemism is established among cephalopods within ocean basins.
No cephalopods appear on the IUCN Red List. In addition, no cephalopods appear on any United States regional listings as of 2003, although there has been discussion of proposing nautilids for listing under CITES. Most large declines in cephalopod abundance are probably cyclic in nature, although overfishing has been implicated in the declines of commercially important species. The decline in abundance of nautilids probably results from human harvesting of them for both shells and meat.
The abundance of cephalopods varies (depending on group, habitat, and season) from isolated territorial individuals (primarily benthic octopods and sepioids) through small schools with a few dozen individuals to huge schools with millions of individuals.
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