Physical characteristics

All living patellogastropods have cap-shaped shells. The apex of the shell is typically situated at the center of the shell or slightly towards the anterior. All shells are sculpted with concentric growth lines in many species, additional radial ribs extend from the apex to the shell margin. These ribs may be very fine like growth lines or broad and strongly raised off the surface. The shell aperture is typically oval. The inner surface of the shell bears a horse-shaped muscle scar that opens...

Resources

Parasitic Copepoda of British Fishes. London Ray Society, 1979. Mehlhorn, H. Parasitology in Focus. Berlin Springer Verlag, 1988. Riley, J. Pentastomids. In Reproductive Biology of Invertebrates. Vol. VI, edited by K. G. Adiyodi and R. G. Adiyodi. Oxford IBH Publishing, 1994. Almeida, W. O., and M. L. Christoffersson. A Cladistic Approach to Relationships in Pentastomida. Journal of Parasitology 85 (1999) 695-704. B ckeler, W. Embryogenese und ZNS-Differenzierung bei Reighardia...

Feeding ecology and diet

Cladocerans use their thoracic legs to produce a constant current of water that allows them to filter food particles. The food items are collected in a groove at the base of their legs and mixed with mucus to form a bolus or mass that is moved forward towards the mouth. Because most cladocerans are filter feeders, they eat organic detritus of all kinds, including algae, protozoans, and bacteria. Although cladocerans cannot select individual food items, they can decide whether to accept or...

Reproductive biology

Asexual reproduction is responsible for colony growth and regeneration of zooids. Each colony begins from a single, sexually produced larva that settles and metamorphoses into a founding zooid, called the ancestrula. The ancestrula undergoes budding to produce a group of daughter zooids, which themselves subsequently form more buds, as do succeeding generations. Budding involves only elements of the body wall. The developing bud originates from the parent zooid. The bud initially includes only...

Conservation status

Anaspidaceans are restricted in their distribution, but for the most part occur in areas where landscape development is minimal. As with many Gondwanan freshwater crustaceans, however, the introduction of trout into the rivers and streams by European colonizers has meant that some species survive only in the small tributaries where fishes cannot go. These crustaceans evolved in the absence of freshwater fishes, so they have no natural defenses against those introduced predators. At present,...

Behavior

Nocturnal during day, it generally lives in wide variety of places that are usually associated with base of tree trunks. Some places can be within buttressing near tree bases, deep in crevices on trunks, in burrows (dug by other animals) or other holes at base of large trunks, and sometimes behind bark. Typically, only one animal resides in a crevice however, one male and one female may live together. One tree trunk may house many individuals. Males change resting location more often than...

Other Common Names

English Australian watering pot, vaginal watering pot. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Shell is narrowly tube-shaped and irregularly sculptured, with the remnant of its 0.2-in (4 mm) larval shell in a lateral saddle near the anterior end. The anterior end is flared, comprising a perforated plate (reflected in common name) fringed by open tubules posterior end has plaited ruffles. Color is white and chalky. Grows as long as 12 in (295 mm). Soft body with large bottle-green siphons fringed with white...

Evolution and systematics

Nonarticulate lampshells, also known as inarticulated bra-chiopods, have been known since the Lower Cambrian period, about 550-600 million years ago. The traditional placement of these animals is in the class Inarticulata, but a more recent classification divides them into two subphyla the Linguliformea and the Craniiformea. The living representatives of the Linguliformea are divided into two families the Lingulidae with two genera, Lingula and Glottidia and the Discinidae with four extant...

Taxonomy

OTHER COMMON NAMES English Paralysis tick, Rocky Mountain spotted fever tick. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS Includes a large collection of diverse types of mites, chiggers, and ticks carries parasites and disease has adult length of 0.08-0.65 in (2.1-16.5 mm). Specifically, unengorged females have length of 0.11-0.21 in (2.8-5.4 mm), adult males a length of 0.08-0.24 in (2.1-6.1 mm), and engorged females a length of up to 0.65 in (16.5 mm) and a width of up to...

Nautilids octopods cuttlefishes squids and relatives

Mollusks bearing a radula (toothed tongue) and well-developed heads mouth characterized by a dorsoventral pair of horny jaws known as beaks and encircled by the bases of 8-ca. 60 grasping appendages single pair of lateral, image-forming eyes well-developed brain and peripheral nervous system Photo A greater blue ringed octopus (Hapalo-chlaena lunulata) takes a crab as it emerges from its hole. (Photo Tony Wu www.silent-symphony .com. Reproduced by permission.)

Deepsea limpets

Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Order Cocculiniformia Number of families 2 Small white limpets that occur on waterlogged wood, whale bone, and cephalopod beaks in the deep sea Photo An individual of the species Addisonia excentrica inside the egg capsule of the species Scyliorhinus canicula, in waters off Acitrezza, Sicily, Italy. (Photo by Danilo Scuderi. Reproduced by permission.)

Mussel shrimps

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Maxillopoda Sublass Ostracoda Number of families 46 Generally small crustaceans with reduced body entirely enclosed within an often-calcified bivalved carapace Photo Members of Herpetocypris reptans, like all ostracods, have bilaterally symmetrical bodies. (Photo by Hubert Kranemann OKAPIA Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Habitat

In marine and freshwater realms, neritopsines are typically associated with hard substrates such as coral, beach rock, basalt outcrops and cobbles, and others. Several taxa (Smarag-diinae) are also associated with marine angiosperms in shallow near-shore marine habitats. Two terrestrial invasions, the Helicinidae and the Hydrocenidae, are both associated with moist forest floors and the trunks of trees. The Helicinidae are also found in xeric habitats, and may be partially or completely...

O

See Agate snails Oasisia spp., 2 91 Obligatory symbiosis, 2 31 See also Behavior Oceanic leeches. See Marine leeches Oceanic squids, 2 475, 2 477, 2 478 Ocnerodrilidae, 2 65 Octochaetidae, 2 65 Octopodiformes, 2 475 Octopods, 2 25, 2 475-485, 2 481 behavior, 2 37, 2 477-478 conservation status, 2 479 distribution, 2 477 evolution, 2 475 feeding ecology, 2 29, 2 478 habitats, 2 477 humans and, 2 479-480 physical characteristics, 2 475-477 reproduction, 2 23, 2 478-479 species...

Y

Phoresy Nonparasitic relationship between two organisms in which one uses the other as a means of transportation. Photokinesis Activity induced by the presence of light. Photophore Cell or group of cells that produce light. Phytophagous An organism that solely feeds upon plants. Pilidium Free-swimming, planktotrophic larva of het-eronemerteans. Planktotrophic larvae Larvae that feed during their planktonic phase. Pleonite Also known as abdominal somite. The single division of a body after the...

A

A crab feeds on a dead fish, aiding in decomposition. (Illustration by Barbara Duperron) of protostomes that can exist within a given environment. For many species, the prevailing abiotic conditions are strongly associated with the characteristics of their habitat. These features are usually well defined. The spatial distribution and abundance of protostomes in either a freshwater pond or rocky shore, for example, will tend to show clear patterns defined by both physical and biological factors....

H

Erich Klinghammer Laboratory of Ethology, Purdue University Ursula Kl s Zoological Garden Berlin, Germany Dr. Otto Koehler Professor Emeritus, Zoological Institute, University of Freiburg Freiburg i. BR., Germany Institute of Ethology, Austrian Academy of Sciences Vienna, Austria State Ornithological Station of BadenW rttemberg Ludwigsburg, Germany Zoological Laboratory, University of Professor and Scientific Councillor, Medical Animal Clinic, University of...

Significance to humans

Because of their tremendous diversity in form and color, caenogastropods have figured more prominently in human cultural than most other gastropod groups. The Phoenicians were famous throughout the ancient Mediterranean world for producing a royal purple dye made from organs found in members of the family Muricidae. Cowry shells were first used as money in China in 1200 B.C. So many cultures have used shells for money that it is the most widely and longest used currency in human history. Shell...

E

Earth centipedes, 2 357, 2 358-359 Earthworms, 2 25, 2 65-74, 2 69 behavior, 2 35, 2 36, 2 43, 2 66 conservation status, 2 67 distribution, 2 66 evolution, 2 65 feeding ecology, 2 36, 2 66 habitats, 2 66 humans and, 2 68 physical characteristics, 2 18, 2 65-66, 2 67 reproduction, 2 16, 2 22, 2 67 species of, 2 70-73 taxonomy, 2 65 Eastern American oysters, 2 455, 2 457, 2 459 Eastern horseshoe crabs. See Japanese horseshoe crabs Eastern oysters. See Eastern American oysters Eastern pearl...

L

Labroides spp., 2 34 Lace corals, 2 509, 2 510 Laevipilina antarctica, 2 387, 2 389, 2 390 LAL (Limulus amebocyte lysate), 2 42 Lamellibrachia spp., 2 91 Lamellibrachia luymesi, 2 92, 2 93, 2 94 Lamellibrachia satsuma, 2 91 Lampropidae, 2 229 Lampshells, 2 13, 2 25, 2 29, 2 524, 2 526-527 articulate, 2 521-527, 2 524 nonarticulate, 2 515-519, 2 517 Land crabs, 2 200, 2 201 Land snails. See Giant African land snails Lung-bearing snails Lanice conchilega. See Sand masons Laqueus californianus....

Distribution

With the exception of Antarctica, Europe, and North America, extant onychophorans are found on all continents. The peripatids inhabit tropical America, and have also been found in tropical western Africa and southeastern Asia. Peri-patopsids are found in countries associated with the previously connected southern super-continent, Gondwana, such as Chile, South Africa, Australia, New Guinea, and New Zealand. Their present distribution is patchy. In the northern hemisphere, the Onychophora are...

B

Bacteria, origins of life and, 2 8-9 Balanus balanoides. See Northern rock barnacles Balanus psittacus, 2 276 Balloon animals. See Balloon water bears Balloon water bears, 2 119, 2 120-121 Banana slugs, North American, 2 413 Bandanna prawns. See Banded coral shrimps Banded boxer shrimps. See Banded coral shrimps Banded coral shrimps, 2 34, 2 202, 2 204, 2 213-214 Bankia setacea. See Shipworms Barber pole shrimps. See Banded coral shrimps Barnacles, 2 273-281, 2 277 behavior, 2 28, 2 43, 2...

I

See Metallic hunting wasps Chowder clams. See Northern quahogs Chromodoris willani, 2 405 Chthamalus stellatus, 2 28 Cicadas, 2 36 CITES. See Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Cladistics. See Taxonomy Cladocera. See Water fleas Clam shrimps, 2 147-151, 2 149 Clams, 2 36, 2 451, 2 454 Asian, 2 454 giant vent, 2 456, 2 462, 2 466 skeletons, 2 18 yo-yo, 2 455, 2 461, 2 465 See also Bivalves specific types of clams Clamworms, 2 25, 2 45-57, 2 48, 2 49...

Marine bryozoans

Phylum Ectoprocta Class Gymnolaemata Number of families About 130 Colonial bryozoans, usually polymorphic zooids bearing a lophophore that protrudes through the action of muscles pulling on a frontal wall of the body Photo Lace corals or moss animals such as Ido-dictyum sp. belong to their own phylum of lopho-phorate animals (use a lophophore for feeding) with individuals living in chambers. Each animal extends out of its box to filter feed and is extremely common in all marine habitats shown...

Info

The Invertebrates A Synthesis. Malden, MA Blackwell Science, 2001. Barnes, Robert D. Invertebrate Zoology, 4th ed. Philadelphia Saunders College Publishing, 1980. Bauer, Raymond T., and Joel W. Martin, eds. Crustacean Sexual Biology. New York Columbia University Press, 1991. Beacham, Walton, Frank V. Castronova, and Suzanne Sessine, eds. Beacham's Guide to the Endangered Species of North America. Detroit, MI Gale Group, 2001. Beesley, Pamela L., Graham J. B. Ross, and...

Yze

Scina borealis, 2 263, 2 268, 2 271 Scissurelloidea, 2 430 Sclerolinum brattstromi, 2 86 Scolopenders, 2 357, 2 360, 2 361-362 Scolopendra spp., 2 355 Scolopendra abnormis, 2 356 Scolopendra morsitans. See Scolopenders Scolopendrellidae, 2 371 Scolopendridae, 2 355 Scolopendromorpha, 2 353, 2 354, 2 356 Scorpio spp. See Scorpions Scorpions, 2 25, 2 333-352, 2 337 behavior, 2 335 conservation status, 2 336 distribution, 2 335 evolution, 2 333 feeding ecology, 2 335 habitats, 2 335 humans and, 2...

D

See Long-bodied cellar spiders Dahlella spp., 2 161 Dahlella caldariensis, 2 163, 2 164 Danaus spp. See Monarch butterflies Dancing shrimps. See Harlequin shrimps Daphnia magna, 2 153, 2 154 Daphnia pulex. See Common water fleas Daphnids, 2 36 Darwin, Charles, 2 7 Dascyllus spp., 2 34 de Bary, Anton, 2 31, 2 33 Decapoda, 2 197-214, 2 199, 2 202, 2 203, 2 475-476 behavior, 2 199-200 conservation status, 2 201 distribution, 2 199 evolution, 2 197-198 feeding ecology, 2 200...

W

Waddycephalus spp., 2 318, 2 320 Wade, Christopher M., 2 411 Waptia fieldensis, 2 11 Wasps, 2 22, 2 23, 2 38 Water bears, 2 14, 2 115-123, 2 119 behavior, 2 117 conservation status, 2 118 distribution, 2 116 evolution, 2 115 feeding ecology, 2 117 habitats, 2 116-117 humans and, 2 118 physical characteristics, 2 115-116 reproduction, 2 23, 2 117-118 species of, 2 120-122 taxonomy, 2 115 Water fleas, 2 153-159, 2 156 behavior, 2 153-154 conservation status, 2 155 evolution, 2 153 feeding...

Nonarticulate lampshells

Hermaphrodite Humans Medical Images

Phylum Brachiopoda Class Inarticulata Number of families 3 Exclusively marine group of lophophorate animals that are suspension feeders attached at the base to the ocean bottom they are called inarticulated because their shells lack articulation Photo A brachiopod lampshell of the genus Lin-gula, showing its stalk and shelled body. (Photo by Biophoto Associates Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

P

Centipedes Pacific endodontoid snails, 2 414 Pacific mole crabs. See Pacific sand crabs Pacific octopods, giant, 2 476 Pacific sand crabs, 2 202, 2 206-207 Pagurapseudes spp., 2 236 Pagurus bernhardus. See Common hermit crabs Painted shrimps. See Harlequin shrimps Panda prawns. See Giant tiger prawns Pandinus imperator. See Emperor scorpions Panulirus argus. See Caribbean spiny lobster Paper nautilus. See Greater argonauts Parabathynellidae, 2 177 Parachela, 2 115 Paraescarpia spp., 2 91...

R

See also Reproduction Radial symmetry, 2 35 See also Physical characteristics Ragworms, 2 49, 2 51, 2 53-54 Raillietiella spp., 2 317 Ram's horn squids, 2 475, 2 481, 2 487, 2 488 Red crayfish. See Red swamp crayfish Red king crabs, 2 199-200, 2 203, 2 208-209 Red swamp crayfish, 2 203, 2 204-205 Reef bugs. See Flathead locust lobsters See also Humans Rembrandt, 2 447 Remipedes, 2 125-129 Reproduction, 2 14-24, 2 27 amphionids, 2 196 amphipods, 2 261-262, 2 265-271 anaspidaceans, 2 182, 2 183...

1

Distribution (continued) clam shrimps, 2 147, 2 250-151 copepods, 2 300, 2 304-309 cumaceans, 2 229, 2 232 Decapoda, 2 199, 2 204-213 deep-sea limpets, 2 435, 2 437 earthworms, 2 66, 2 70-73 echiurans, 2 103, 2 106-107 fairy shrimps, 2 136, 2 139-140 fish lice, 2 289, 2 292-293 freshwater bryozoans, 2 497, 2 500-502 horseshoe crabs, 2 328, 2 331-332 Isopoda, 2 250, 2 254-259 krill, 2 185, 2 189-192 leeches, 2 76, 2 80-82 leptostracans, 2 161, 2 164-165 lophogastrids, 2 225, 2 227 mantis...

Freshwater bryozoans

Phylum Ectoprocta Class Phylactolaemata Number of families 5 Filter-feeding invertebrate animals composed of many identical zooids joined seamlessly as a colony, each zooid capable of independent feeding, digestion, and reproduction Illustration Pectinatella magnifica. (Illustration by Bruce Worden) Phylum Ectoprocta Class Phylactolaemata Number of families 5 Filter-feeding invertebrate animals composed of many identical zooids joined seamlessly as a colony, each zooid capable of independent...

A brief geologic history of animal life

A note about geologic time scales A cursory look will reveal that the timing of various geological periods differs among textbooks. Is one right and the others wrong Not necessarily. Scientists use different methods to estimate geological time methods with a precision sometimes measured in tens of millions of years. There is, however, a general agreement on the magnitude and relative timing associated with modern time scales. The closer in geological time one comes to the present, the more...

Caenogastropods

Number of families Approximately 100 The most diverse gastropod group living today they include almost every gastropod shell form and are successful in every major habitat on Earth Photo Macrograph of the species Xenophora pal-lidula, a member of the carrier shell family, named for cementing broken shells and stones to its own shell, a decorative variation on the theme of camouflage. (Photo by Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Contributors to the first edition

The following individuals contributed chapters to the original edition of Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, which was edited by Dr. Bernhard Grzimek, Professor, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Germany Director, Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Germany and Trustee, Tanzanian National Parks, Tanzania. Dr. Michael Abs Curator, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany Bombay Natural History Society Bombay, India Dr. Rudolph Altevogt Professor, Zoological Institute, University of M nster M nster, Germany...

Ecology

Protostomes are one of the most diverse and abundant groups in the animal kingdom. Their distribution, variety, and abundance are largely the result of evolutionary adaptations to climatic changes in their respective environments. At present, they inhabit a wide range of terrestrial and marine environments. Many protostomes are familiar to most people, including spiders, earthworms, snails, mussels, and squid, to mention just a few. Their lifestyles, origins and diversity all have underlying...

G

Ecology of Coastal Waters with Implications for Management. Malden, MA Blackwell Science, 2000. Mauchline, J. The Biology of Mysids and Euphausiids, Part I, The Biology of Mysids. London Academic Press, 1980. -. The Biology of Calanoid Copepods. Advances in Marine Biology. New York, London Academic Press, 1998. Mead, Albert R. The Giant African Land Snail A Problem in Economic Malacology. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1961. Mehlhorn, H. Parasitology in Focus. Berlin Springer Verlag,...

Glossary

4d cell Mesentoblast a blastomere cell that results from zygotes that have spiral cleavage divisions, and contains an unidentified cytoplasmic factor that causes the cell and its progeny to form mesoderm. Abdomen The posterior of the main body divisions. Abyssal Of, or relating to the deepest regions of the ocean. Acanthor First larval stage of acanthocephalans. Aciculum Small needlelike structure resembling a rod that supports the divisions of the parapodium. Acoelomate An organism,...

Rvv

Ichthyosaurs, 2 10 Idiosepius spp., 2 476 Idmidronea atlantica, 2 505, 2 507-508 Idodictyum spp., 2 509 Ikedidae, 2 103 Illacme plenipes, 2 363 Immigration, 2 27 See also Behavior Inarticulata. See Nonarticulate lampshells Inarticulated brachiopods. See Nonarticulate lampshells Incirrata. See Common octopods I Indeterminate cleavage. See Radial cleavage I Indirect development, 2 21 Indo-Pacific swamp crabs. See Mangrove X Innkeeper worms, 2 104, 2 105, 2 106, 2 107 Inquilism, 2 31, 2 33 See...

Horseshoe crabs

Phylum Arthropoda Class Chelicerata Subclass Merostomata Number of families 1 Marine creatures distinguished by a large, hard exoskeleton that includes an arched, horseshoe-shaped shield in front (prosoma), a middle portion (opisthosoma), and a thin tail (telson) they are among the oldest living organisms Photo A horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) trying to turn itself right side up. (Photo by Gilbert S. Grant Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

M

See North American medicinal leeches Macrobiotus spp., 2 116 Macrobiotus hufelandi, 2 116, 2 118 Macrobiotus richtersi, 2 117 Macrocheira kaempferi. See Giant Japanese spider crabs Macroherbivory feeding, 2 36 See also Feeding ecology Macromeres, 2 3, 2 20 Macroperipatus torquatus, 2 37 Magnificent Calypto clams. See Giant vent clams Malacostraca, 2 185, 2 197 Malaria, 2 11-12, 2 31 See also Humans Malzahn, E., 2 161 Mangrove crabs, 2 203, 2 205, 2 212 Mantis shrimps, 2...

Nonassociative Learning

This form of behavior modification involves the association of one event, as when the repeated presentation of a stimulus leads to an alteration of the frequency or speed of a response. Non-associative learning is considered to be the most basic of the learning processes and forms the building blocks of higher order types of learning in protostomes. The organism does not learn to do anything new or better rather, the innate response to a situation or to a particular stimulus is modified. Many...

Pauropods

Though no fossil pauropods have been found from before the time of the Baltic amber, they seem to be an old group closely related to the Diplopoda. Their head capsules show great similarities to diplopods both have three pairs of mouthparts and the genital openings occur in the anterior part of the body. Moreover, both groups have a pupoid phase at the end of the embryonic development. The two groups probably have a common origin. There are two orders Hexamerocerata and Tetramero-cerata....

S

See Honeycomb worms Sabellids, 2 46, 2 47 Sacculina carcini. See Root-like barnacles Sactosoma vitreum, 2 103 Sactosomatidae. See Sactosoma vitreum Sactosomatidea. See Sactosoma vitreum Salinity, 2 26 See also Habitats Salmon lice, 2 303, 2 309-310 Salt-and-pepper shrimps. See Sevenspine bay Salticus scenicus. See Zebra spiders Sambonia spp., 2 318 Sambonidae, 2 318 Samoan crabs. See Mangrove crabs Sand crabs, 2 198 Sand fiddler crabs, 2 202, 2 210 Sand hoppers. See Beach...

Spiders scorpions mites and ticks

Phylum Arthropida Class Chelicerata Subclass Arachnida Number of families 648 Highly recognizable and populous eight-k invertebrates with two body parts (a prosoma and an abdomen), pedipalps, book lungs or tracheae, sometimes poisonous fangs, and generally the ability to produce silk they are terrestrial chelicerates (invertebrates with pincer-shaped mouthparts) Photo A smooth-headed scorpion (Opisthopthal-mus) in defensive posture. (Photo by Ann & Steve Toon Wildlife Photography. Reproduced...

Slit and top shells

Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Superorder Vetigastropoda Number of families Approximately 12 A large and diverse group of marine gastropods found from the intertidal zone to the deep sea. Most maintain some bilateral asymmetry in their organ systems many have shells with slits or other secondary openings. Photo An individual of the species Haliotis tu-berculata lamellosa, showing its epipodial tentacles, a characteristic only of the vetigastropods. (Photo by S. Piraino University of Leece ....

Spelaeogriphacea

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Spelaeogriphacea Number of families 1 Small, cave-dwelling, freshwater crustaceans having a short carapace, eye lobes without eyes, and appendages on all abdominal somites Illustration Spelaeogriphus lepidops. (Illustration by Dan Erickson) Spelaeogriphaceans are known from one fossil species, found in New Brunswick, Canada, and three recent species. The first living species was found in a stream at the bottom of Bat Cave in Table...

T

See Japanese horseshoe crabs Tadpole shrimps, 2 141-146, 2 144 behavior, 2 142 conservation status, 2 142 distribution, 2 141-142 evolution, 2 141 feeding ecology, 2 142 habitats, 2 142 humans and, 2 143 physical characteristics, 2 141 reproduction, 2 142 species of, 2 145-146 taxonomy, 2 141 Tahitian pearl oysters. See Black-lipped pearl oysters Tanaidomorpha, 2 235 Tanaids, 2 235-239, 2 237 Tanarctus bubulubus. See Balloon water bears Tantulocaridans, 2 283-287, 2 285...

Symphylans

The Symphyla seem to be a very old and homogenous group, probably monophyletic. It is known from both Dominican and Baltic amber. Contrary to Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Pauropoda (other subclasses within the Myriapoda), the Symphyla have a remarkably uniform anatomy and outer morphology. Only two families have been distinguished Scutigerellidae, with five genera and about 125 swift-moving species, generally 0.15-0.31 in (4-8 mm) long and Scolopendrellidae, with eight genera and about 75...

True limpets

Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Order Patellogastropoda Number of families 5 Cap-shaped snails typically found on wave-exposed rocky shores Photo Individuals of the genus Scurria on the rocky shores of Chile. (Photo by S. Piraino University of Leece . Reproduced by permission.) Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Order Patellogastropoda Number of families 5 Cap-shaped snails typically found on wave-exposed rocky shores Photo Individuals of the genus Scurria on the rocky shores of Chile. (Photo by...

Tusk shells

Phylum Mollusca Class Scaphopoda Number of families 14 Single-shelled tusk-shaped mollusks, ranging from about an eighth of an inch (a few mm) to 7.8 in (20 cm) in length. Burrow into exclusively marine sediments with a muscular foot feed on microorganisms with thin tentacular captacula (threadlike cilia-bearing organs). Photo Three species of scaphopod mollusks. The dark colored specimen is Dentalium priseum, found in Carboniferous strata of Scotland. At center are specimens of D. sexangulare,...

V

See Watering pot shells Valdiviathyris spp., 2 515 Valvifera, 2 249 Vampire squids, 2 475-476, 2 477, 2 481, 2 486, 2 488-489 Vampyromorpha. See Vampire squids Vampyroteuthis infernalis. See Vampire squids Vargula hilgendorfii, 2 313, 2 314 Variable coquinas. See Coquina clams Vaught, Kay Cunningham, 2 412 Veiled chitons, 2 395, 2 396, 2 397, 2 400-401 Velvet worms, 2 109-114, 2 110 behavior, 2 37, 2 110 conservation status, 2 111 distribution, 2 110 evolution, 2 109...

Vda

Wilhelm Meise Chief Curator, Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Hamburg Hamburg, Germany Dr. Joachim Messtorff Field Station of the Federal Fisheries Research Institute Bremerhaven, Germany Dr. Marian Mlynarski Professor, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute for Systematic and Experimental Zoology Cracow, Poland Dr. Walburga Moeller Nature Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. H. C. Erna Mohr Curator (retired), Zoological State Institute and Museum Hamburg, Germany Dr. Karl-Heinz Moll...

Foreword

No one knows exactly how many distinct organisms inhabit our planet, but more than 5 million different species of animals and plants could exist, ranging from microscopic algae and bacteria to gigantic elephants, redwood trees and blue whales. Yet, throughout this wonderful tapestry of living creatures, there runs a single thread Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. The existence of DNA, an elegant, twisted organic molecule that is the building block of all life, is perhaps...

Library Of Congress Cataloginginpublication Data

English Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia. 2nd ed. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references. Contents v. 1. Lower metazoans and lesser deuterosomes Neil Schlager, editor v. 2. Protostomes Neil Schlager, editor v. 3. Insects Neil Schlager, editor v. 4-5. Fishes I-II Neil Schlager, editor v. 6. Amphibians Neil Schlager, editor v. 7. Reptiles Neil Schlager, editor v. 8-11. Birds I-IV Donna Olendorf, editor v. 12-16. Mammals I-V Melissa C. McDade, editor v. ISBN...

Mictacea

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Mictacea Number of families 2 Very small crustaceans, generally allied with peracarids, that are constructed much like thermosbaenaceans and spelaeogriphaceans, but there is no carapace and only rudimentary appendages on the abdomen Illustration Mictocaris halope. (Illustration by John Megahan) The order Mictacea includes two families, three genera, and five species. This group has been included in the superorder Peracarida on the...

Tanaidacea

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Tanaidacea Number of families 20 Small, mostly marine-dwelling crustaceans that are among the most diverse and abundant creatures in some marine environments Illustration Apseudes intermedius. (Illustration by Dan Erickson) The fossil record of tanaids is better known from the Ma-zon Creek faunas from the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous). These faunas are distinguished from others by the numbers and types of species...

Waterfleas

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Branchiopoda Order Cladocera Number of families 15 Small transparent zooplankton found in bodies of freshwater throughout the world a few species inhabit marine waters Photo Photomicrograph of a gravid female water flea (Daphnia magna) carrying eggs. (Photo by Holt Studios Nigel Cattlin Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Protostomes and humans

The influence of protostomes on humans Many protostomes are small in size and often overlooked among larger natural features and more charismatic creatures of the surrounding world. However, protostomes have played a variety of important roles in human cultures, economies, and health since ancient times. Some protostome species have instilled a sense of fear in the minds of humans, while others have represented fortune. Some have provided nourishing sources of food, while others have advanced...

Clam shrimps

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Branchiopoda Order Conchostraca Number of families 5 Shrimps that possess a bivalved shell with a hinge that envelops the entire body and limbs they are found exclusively in freshwater Photo Clam shrimps (Limnadia lenticularis) are found in temporary puddles, sometimes dug into the mud at the bottom of the puddle. (Photo by Andreas Hartl OKAPIA Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Contents

viii Contributing What is a Evolution and Reproduction, development, and life Protostomes and Class Class Class Class Class Phylum Phylum Phylum Class Class Order Order Order Order Subclass Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Order Subclass Subclass Subclass Subclass Subclass Subclass Class Class Subclass Subclass Subclass Subclass Subclass Subclass Class Class Class Subclass Subclass Order Superorder Order Order Order Class Class Class Phylum...

Associative Learning

This is a form of behavior modification involving the association of two or more events such as between two stimuli or between a stimulus and a response. In associative learning, the participant does learn to do something new or better. Associative learning differs from non-associative learning by the number and kind of events that are learned and how the events are learned. Another difference between the two forms of learning is that non-associative learning is considered to be a more...

Crabs shrimps and lobsters

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Crustaceans with a large carapace covering the head and thorax and enveloping the gill chambers also possess five pairs of legs Number of families 151 Photo The bubble coral shrimp (Vir philippinen-sis) is very widespread throughout Indo-Pacific waters. This species is always found in association with the bubble-shaped coral. They often come in pairs, and they live in the crevices among the bubbles of the coral, using the...

Suspension Feeders

Crustaceans such as daphnids, brine shrimp, copepods, and ostracods (i.e., those not considered in the class Malacostraca) are excellent examples of filter- or suspension-feeding protostomates. Suspension feeders obtain food by either moving through the water or by remaining stationary. In both cases, bacteria, plankton, and detritus flow through specially designed feeding structures. Interestingly, because of the large amount of energy required to continuously filter water, there are...

Contributing writers

Abramson, PhD Oklahoma State University Stillwater, Oklahoma Tatiana Amabile de Campos, MSc Universidade Estadual de Campinas Campinas, Brazil William Arthur Atkins Atkins Research and Consulting Normal, Illinois Michela Borges, MSc Universidade Estadual de Campinas Campinas, Brazil Geoffrey Boxshall, PhD The Natural History Museum London, United Kingdom Sherri Chasin Calvo Independent Science Writer Clarksville, Maryland David Bruce Conn, PhD Berry College Mount Berry, Georgia Sean...

Physical And Chemical Defense

A common behavior exhibited by protostomes in response to danger is adopting a threatening posture. When, for example, a specimen of Brachypelma smithi (mygalomorph spider) is threatened outside its burrow, it reacts by making itself appear larger by shifting weight onto the rear legs while simultaneously raising the front legs and exposing the fangs. Another physical defense mechanism of many species of my- galomorphs is that they use the fine sharp hairs that cover them to pierce their...

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How to use this book

Grzimek,s Animal Life Encyclopedia is an internationally prominent scientific reference compilation, first published in German in the late 1960s, under the editorship of zoologist Bernhard Grzimek (1909-1987). In a cooperative effort between Gale and the American Zoo and Aquarium Association, the series has been completely revised and updated for the first time in over 30 years. Gale expanded the series from 13 to 17 volumes, commissioned new color paintings, and updated the information so as...

Branchiura

The subclass Branchiura comprises just four genera placed in a single family, the Argulidae, and about 175 species. Branchiuran fish lice have flattened bodies, which have a low profile when attached to their hosts. The body comprises a head of five limb-bearing segments and a short trunk divided into a thoracic region, carrying four pairs of strong swimming legs and a short, unsegmented abdomen. The head has well-developed carapace lobes, which are posterior extensions of the dorsal head...

Cumaceans

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Cumacea Number of families 8 Cumaceans are quickly recognizable by their large carapace, which covers the first three thoracic somites and narrow abdomen. The first thoracic appendage is modified as a maxilliped, which has both feeding and respiratory functions. Illustration Diastylis sculpta. (Illustration by Dan Erickson)

Advisory boards

Director of Conservation and Science William Conway Chair American Zoo and Aquarium Association Silver Spring, Maryland Volume 1 Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes Dennis A. Thoney, PhD Director, Marine Laboratory & Facilities Humboldt State University Arcata, California Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences Humboldt State University Arcata, California Dennis A. Thoney, PhD Director, Marine Laboratory & Facilities Humboldt State University Arcata, California...

Organizations

htm> American Society of Parasitologists < http asp.unl.edu> American Zoo and Aquarium Association 8403 Colesville Road, Suite 710 Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA < http www.aza.org> Australian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 Australia Phone 61 (2) 9978-4797 Fax 61 (2) 9978-4761 < http www.arazpa.org> British and Irish Graptolite Group c o Dr. A. W. A. Rushton The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Rd. London SW7 5BD United Kingdom E-Mail...

Amphipoda

Photo Skeleton shrimps (Caprella sp.) have raptor like claws, presumably used to capture prey (copepods, crustacea larvae, worms, amphipods, etc.) floating by in the current. (Photo Tony Wu www.silent-symphony.com. Reproduced by permission.) The order Amphipoda is made up of three suborders (some scientists recognize the Ingolfiellidea as a suborder rather than a family of the Gammaridea), 155 families, and more than 6,000 species. The three suborders are Gammaridea, with 126 families...

Macroherbivory Feeders

Macroherbivory feeders obtain food by consuming macroscopic plants. One of the best protostome examples of plant feeders is the order Orthoptera (crickets, locust, and grasshoppers). Members of this order have developed specialized mouthparts and muscle structures to bite and chew. The African Copiphorinae, for example, uses its large jaws to open seeds. Biting and chewing mouthparts are also seen in beetles and many orders of insects. Two other types of mouth-parts common to macroherbivory...

Contributing illustrators

Trumpey, Director, AB, MFA Science Illustration, School of Art and Design, University Paul Exner, Chief cartographer XNR Productions, Madison, WI Jonathan Higgins, BFA, MFA Amanda Humphrey, BFA Emilia Kwiatkowski, BS, BFA Jacqueline Mahannah, BFA, MFA John Megahan, BA, BS, MS Michelle L. Meneghini, BFA, MFA Katie Nealis, BFA Laura E. Pabst, BFA Amanda Smith, BFA, MFA Christina St.Clair, BFA Bruce D. Worden, BFA Kristen Workman, BFA, MFA Thanks are due to the University of Michigan,...

Sea slugs

Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda Subclass Opisthobranchia Number of families 110 Marine snails found in oceans throughout the world the diversity encompasses species that range in habit from pelagic to burrowing, in color from transparent to vividly colored, and in structure from those with protective shells to soft-bodied forms with flowing movements Photo This small nudibranch (Glossodoris stel-latus) is laying eggs. The swirl pattern of egg laying is a common one the color of the eggs is...

Chitons

Phylum Mollusca Class Polyplacophora Number of families 10 Mollusks with a flattened, ovoid shape, broad ventral foot, and eight (sometimes seven) dorsal shell plates that overlap one another and allow the animal to bend and mold itself onto a rock to avoid wave dislodgement Photo The lined chiton (Tonicella lineata) is a slow moving mollusk with a shell composed of multiple plates. (Photo by David Hall Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The earliest fossil chitons occur in the...

Thermosbaenacea

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Thermosbaenacea Number of families 4 Small crustaceans with a short carapace (shell) and seven free thoracic somites (segments) Illustration Thermosbaena mirabilis. (Illustration by Dan Erickson) Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Thermosbaenacea Number of families 4 Small crustaceans with a short carapace (shell) and seven free thoracic somites (segments) Illustration Thermosbaena mirabilis....

Leeches

Leech Biology

Photo Newborn brood of aquatic leaf leeches. (Photo by Animals Animals K. Atkinson, OSF. Reproduced by permission.) Leeches are completely soft-bodied animals and could not be expected to leave a marked fossil record. Although there are two putative fossils from Bavarian deposits dating from the Upper Jurassic period (about 145 million years ago), Epi-trachys rugosus (Ehlers, 1869) and Palaeohirudo eichstaettensis (Kozur, 1970), neither has both the definitive caudal sucker and the ring-shaped...

Protostomes order list

Annelida Phylum Polychaeta Class Haplotaxida Order Lumbriculida Moniligastrida Opisthopora Arhynchobdellae Order Rhynchobdellida Aspidosiphoniformes Order Golfingiaformes Phascolosomatiformes Sipunculiformes Bonellioinea Order Echiuroinea Heteromyota Xenopneusta Arthropoda Phylum Crustacea Subphylum Remipedia Class Anostraca Order Notostraca Conchostraca Cladocera Malacostraca Class Phyllocarida Subclass Maxillopoda Class Thecostraca Subclass Acrothoracica Order Ascothoracica Rhizocephala...

O T

Institute of Ornithology, Heligoland R Ornithological Station T Dr. Peter Roben Academic Councillor, Zoological Institute, Heidelberg University Heidelberg, Germany Dr. Anton E. M. De Roo Royal Museum of Central Africa Tervuren, South Africa Dr. Hubert Saint Girons Research Director, Center for National Scientific Research Brunoy (Essonne), France Dr. Luitfried Von Salvini-Plawen First Zoological Institute, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria Dr. Kurt Sanft Oberstudienrat, Diesterweg-Gymnasium...

Peanut worms

Photo Peanut worm (Phascolosoma sp.) with partially extended introvert. (Photo by L. Newman & A. Flowers. Reproduced by permission.) No unambiguous fossil Sipuncula are currently known. Ot-toia prolifica from the Burgess Shale has been proposed as a fossil sipunculan, but might also be an aschelminth or Pria-pulida. The paleozoic Hyolitha has a mix of attributes of sipunculans and mollusks, suggesting a close phylogenetic relationship with both. Fossilized burrows possibly created by...

N

Nacellidae, 2 423, 2 424 Nannastacidae, 2 229, 2 230 Nannosquilla decemspinosa, 2 172, 2 173, 2 174 Nannosquillidae, 2 170 Narceus spp., 2 365 Narceus americanus, 2 365 Nassariidae, 2 446 Nautilids, 2 475-483, 2 481 behavior, 2 477-478 conservation status, 2 479 distribution, 2 477, 2 482 evolution, 2 475 feeding ecology, 2 478 habitats, 2 477 humans and, 2 479-480 physical characteristics, 2 475-477 reproduction, 2 478-479 species of, 2 483 taxonomy, 2 475 Nautiloidea. See Nautilids Nautilus...

Lungbearing snails and slugs

Classification Slugs

Number of families Approximately 120 Mainly terrestrial but also freshwater and marine slugs and snails, almost all having an enclosed lung Photo A garden snail Helix aspersa issuing defensive foam. Photo by Holt Studios, Int. Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. The earliest fossil pulmonate land snails date back over 300 million years to the Carboniferous period of North America and Europe, although there is some controversy as to whether these belong to primitive pulmonate...

Hydrothermal vent and cold seep worms

Hydrothermal Vent Vestimentiferans

Phylum Vestimentifera Number of families 8 Segmented worms that have an unusual anatomy and rely on symbiotic bacteria for nutrition. They are nearly always found in deep waters, some as members of hydrothermal vent communities and others found in association with reducing sediments such as cold seeps Photo This photo of Riftia pachyptila comes from a depth of 8,200 ft 2,500 m at 9 50 N. on the East Pacific Rise, and was shot on a dive in the submersible Alvin. Photo by Craig M. Young, Oregon...

Aplacophorans

Aplacophorans

Photo A caudofoveatan species unknown seen in the Antarctic. Photo by S. Piraino University of Lecce . Reproduced by permission. The class Aplacophora contains two subclasses Neome-niomorpha also called Solenogastres and Chaetodermo-morpha also called Caudofoveata . Most neomenioids creep by means of a narrow foot with a ventral groove that begins as a pedal pit toward the front of the animal. They have a sensory vestibule above the mouth a single midgut organ combining stomach and digestive...

Ovotestis Posterior hermaphrodite duct

Illustration by Christina St. Clair short periods of time as well. Benthic sea slugs are slow-moving organisms. They live relatively sedentary lives, and some species spend their entire life on one prey organism such as a sponge or coral reef. Almost all dispersal to new areas occurs during the veliger larval stage veligers will settle out of the water column only when suitable substrate is present. Some larvae have crossed entire ocean basins because of lack of suitable...

Earthworms

Lubriscus Reproductive Region

Photo A giant earthworm Haplotaxida burrows back into the moist leaf litter in the subtropical rainforest floor. Photo by Wayne Lawler Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. Earthworms belong to a well-defined clade, the Clitellata, which includes leeches, branchiobdellids, many aquatic and small terrestrial worms with a single cell-layered clitellum, and the earthworms, most of which have a multi-layered clitellum. However, earthworms as a group lack a defining characteristic unique...

Beard worms

Reproduction Biology

Phylum Annelida Class Pogonophora Number of families 13 Tube-living marine worms nourished by internal chemoautotrophic bacteria. Photo Ridgeia piscesae at Middle Valley hydrothermal site in the northeast Pacific Ocean, photographed through the porthole of Alvin, the Navy-owned deep submergence vehicle. The tubes are 0.20-0.39 in 5-10 mm in diameter. Photo by E. C. Southward. Reproduced by permission. The name Pogonophora comes from the Greek pogon, meaning beard, and phora, meaning bearing,...

Tantulocarida

Millipedes Have Two Penises

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Maxillopoda Subclass Tantulocarida Number of families 4 Tiny parasitic crustaceans that spend most of their lives attached to the external body surface of their hosts, a wide range of other marine crustaceans Photo The tantulus larva and globular adult female of Microdajus langi, a tantulocaridan parasite, attached to its host, a tanaidacean crustacean. Photo by G. A. Boxshall. Reproduced by permission. Photo The tantulus larva and globular adult...

Clam sand and tubeworms

Biology Pictures Various Worms

Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta Number of families 86 Segmented worms with numerous bristles and one pair of parapodia per segment Photo Bristle or fire worms Chloeia sp. primarily come out at night and are scavangers. Photo Tony Wu www.silent-symphony.com. Reproduced by permission. Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta Number of families 86 Segmented worms with numerous bristles and one pair of parapodia per segment Photo Bristle or fire worms Chloeia sp. primarily come out at night and are...

Lophogastrids

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Lophogastrida Number of families 2 Small shrimplike marine crustaceans with elongate carapaces covering, but not fused to, all thoracic somites segments stalked eyes and strongly developed swimming legs on the first five abdominal somites Illustration Giant red mysid Gnathophausia ingens . Illustration by John Megahan

Millipedes

Allergic Reaction From Millipede Photos

Photo A millipede Sigmoria aberrans displaying warning colors. Photo by Gilbert S. Grant Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. The class Diplopoda contains about 10,000 described species in 15 orders and 148 families. Scientists believe that as many as 70,000 additional species have yet to be identified. The millipedes were once classified as a subclass of the class Myriapoda, which also contained the centipedes now assigned to class Chilopoda . Since then, all four major myria-pod...

Symbiosis

Examples Parasitism

Without symbiosis, living organisms would be quite different from what they are today. This is true not only because symbiotic relationships were fundamental to the separation of eukaryotes organisms whose cells have true nuclei from prokaryotes cellular organisms lacking a true nucleus , but also because they represent a unique biological process without which many organisms could not exist. All herbivorous mammals and insects, for example, would starve without their cellulose-digesting...

Startle Displays And Flash Coloration

When stimulated by an aggressor, some protostomes quickly modify their posture to make them appear larger and at the same time to quickly present a flash of color. The various postures and displays are characterized by their position, such as frontal displays and lateral displays. The colors associated with these displays are often effective forms of defense because aggressors learn to associate certain colors with results that may have occurred through prior interaction with the intended prey....

Reproduction development and life history

Hydrostatic Skeleton Earthworms

All animals must reproduce, passing copies of their genes into separate new bodies in future generations. These genetic copies may be genetically identical, produced by asexual processes, or genetically distinct, produced by sexual processes. In sexual processes, which are by far the more common among animals, the initial result of reproduction is a single cell, known as a zygote, containing the new and unique set of genes. Yet, by definition animals are multicellular, and generally consist of...

Isopoda

Families Terrestrial Isopoda Oniscidea

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Malacostraca Order Isopoda Number of families Approximately 120 Small, generally gray, usually flat, marine, freshwater, or terrestrial animals with numerous legs some species are parasitic Photo Pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare rolled up in defensive mode. Photo by Nigel Cattlin Holt Studios Int'l Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission. With approximately 10,000 known species in 10 suborders, the order Isopoda falls under the class...

Predatory Feeders

Arguably the most sophisticated protostome feeders are those that obtain food by hunting, which requires the animal to locate, pursue, and handle prey. Most invertebrates locate prey by chemoreception others use vision, tactile, or vibration, or some combination thereof. Predators can be classified as stalkers, lurkers, sessile opportunists, or grazers. Planarians Platyhelminthes are an excellent example of animals that obtain food through hunting. The vast majority of planarians are...

Thecostraca

Clase Thecostraca

Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Crustacea Class Maxillopoda Subclass Thecostraca Number of families 48 Highly modified, mainly free-living sessile and parasitic crustaceans, usually enclosed within a calcareous carapace or forming a chitinous saclike body Photo Species of the genus Synagoga, found on the species Antipathella wollastoni at a depth of 131 ft 40 m in waters off of the Azores. Photo by Peter Wirtz. Reproduced by permission. The calcareous carapaced forms of thecostracans have provided...