Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation Audio Sounds Dusk At The Oasis

Relaxation Audio Sounds Dusk At The Oasis

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Brain Evolution System

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Transient lower esophageal relaxations

Compelling evidence exists that transient LES relaxations are the most frequent mechanism for reflux during periods of normal LES pressure (> 10 mmHg). Transient LES relaxations occur independently of swallowing, are not accompanied by peristalsis, are accompanied by crural diaphragmatic inhibition, and persist for longer periods than do swallow-induced LES relaxations (> 10 seconds) 29 , 30 . The dominant stimulus for transient LES relaxation is distension of the proximal stomach, not surprising given that transient LES relaxation is the physiological mechanism for belching 31 . Transient LES relaxation can be experimentally elicited by either gaseous distension of the stomach or distension of the proximal stomach with a barostat bag. Gastric distension activates vagal afferent mechanoreceptors in the gastric cardia that project to the nucleus tractus solitarii in the brainstem and subsequently to the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagus and finally to the myenteric plexus. With...

Relaxation

Exposure-based treatment may sometimes be accompanied by additional elements. In systematic desensitization, relaxation is added to the exposure to the anxiety-eliciting situation. Relaxation is not essential for successful exposure however. Relaxation exercises focus on the physiological component of anxiety and tension. The patient learns, first in the therapist's office and later at home, to relax various muscle groups progressively. It is essential that the patient first learns to recognize tension in the different muscle groups. Accordingly, he can apply the relaxation effectively when the early signs of tension manifest themselves. In behaviour therapy, relaxation exercises are applied much more widely than merely as a component of systematic desensitization. Relaxation training has been an important component of various treatments, most notably in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Relaxation training can also be useful in treating tension headaches and disturbed...

Pulsatile Coronary Arterial and Venous Flow

Coronary arterial blood flow is phasic, which is caused by the aortic pressure wave and compression of the intramural coronary vessels by contraction of the cardiac muscle. This compression effect causes mean systolic arterial flow to be lower than mean diastolic flow, although the driving pressure in systole is higher. Figure 2 illustrates the characteristic features of pressure and flow waveforms in the left coronary artery of a dog. The systolic flow wave has an initial and a late dip, which are related to the rapid changes in systolic left ventricular pressure and correspond to the phases where the stiffness of the heart muscle is increasing and decreasing, respectively. During the relaxation phase, diastolic flow initially increases sharply above systolic levels and then decreases gradually with aortic pressure.

Comparison of 30 T and 15 T MR Imaging

Smaller (30-60 ) because the signal reduction induced by changes in relaxation times is associated with a greater signal loss due to susceptibility (related to the very low iron concentrations in some of these areas) and to chemical shift artefacts. Moreover, despite major advances in software and hardware directed at improving image quality and reducing imaging time, acquisition parameters can also be modified to an extent where a lower SNR can be obtained at 3.0 T than 1.5 T (Fig. 3.2). However, use of 3.0 T systems in clinical settings requires great care to avoid compromising image quality.

Diagnostic Features of 30 T MR Imaging

Whereas proton density is clearly a magnetic field-independent parameter, T1 and T2 relaxation times are field-dependent, usually increasing and, respectively, decreasing at higher magnetic fields. The rates at which excited protons relax are a function of magnetic field strength. In general, the longitudinal or spin-lattice relaxation rate (R1 1 T1) of certain tissues (e.g. semisolids) decreases with field strength, whereas the transverse relaxation rate (R2 1 T2) is scarcely affected 5,19 . This leads to a 25-40 increase in T1 relaxation time in tissues on passing from 1.5 T to 3.0 T fields. By contrast, for biological fluids (like CSF and blood) the longitudinal rate is weakly affected, so that R1 and R2 are basically equal at both field intensities. As a result, given the same TR, T1 weighting is greater at 3.0 T than at 1.5 T. GoodT1 contrast can also be achieved using relatively long TR. The increase in T1 relaxation time is a major drawback in high-field SE T1 imaging, as the...

Urinary Bladder Dysfunction

Urodynamic studies have been conducted in small samples of PD patients with persistent bladder complaints to elucidate the nature of the problem. Berger et al. (60) studied 29 patients and found that detrusor hyperreflexia was present in 90 and that incomplete sphincter relaxation during involuntary detrusor contractions as shown

Musculoskeletal System

Age-related structural changes in the musculoskeletal system include a decrease in the total amount of muscle in body tissue after age 40 and its replacement by fat tissue, an increase in deposits of mineral salts in the bones, a decrease in cartilage around joints, and a decrease in the quantity of synovial fluid in the joints. Muscular tone, strength, flexibility, speed, and stamina decline the relaxation contraction time of muscles increases and injured muscles heal more slowly.

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Neurological Effects

The neurological effects of kava are attributed to a group of substituted dihydropyrones called kava lactones (1). The main bioactive constituents include yangonin, desmethoxyyangonin, 11-methoxyyangonin, kavain (kawain), dihydrokavain, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 5,6-dehydromethysticin (8). It is believed that the components present in the lipid-soluble kava extract, or kava resin, are responsible for the central nervous system (CNS) activities of kava including sedation, hypnosis, analgesia, and muscle relaxation (9). Aqueous kava extract was not active orally in mice or rats. Another study compared the cognitive effects of this same kava extract at a dose of 200 mg three times daily for 5 days to oxazepam 15 mg, followed by 75 mg on the experimental day (12). The results suggest that kava is less likely to affect cognitive function than oxazepam, but the oxazepam dosing regimen used was not typical of that seen in practice. Nevertheless, kava is purported to promote...

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome OSAS

Obesity and sleep-induced relaxation of the pharyngeal musculature are thought to cause intermittent upper airway obstruction. Obstruction leads to hypoxemia and hypercarpnia, which results in arousal and the return of normal respiration. Repeated awakenings result to daytime somnolence.

Esophageal dysmotility

Gastroesophageal reflux is the result of transient LES relaxation, stress reflux or an abnormally low LES pressure (free reflux or the common cavity phenomenon) (see Fig. 2). LES Relaxation Pressure Transients Free GE Reflux Fig. 2. Demonstration of the 3 underlying mechanisms that can lead to gastroesophageal reflux. They include, inappropriate transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, reduced lower esophageal sphincter basal pressure leading to free reflux''and stress reflux (with permission from 13 )

Organization Myocardium

As discussed in connective tissue matrix, the myocardium is composed of obliquely oriented layers that 'wrap' around the ventricular cavity. This is particular obvious in the left ventricle, with 3 layers whereas, the thinner, low-pressure right ventricle generally has 2 less well-defined layers. Since the layers in the left ventricle are oriented obliquely to each other, sectioning through the ventricular wall reveals groups of myocardial cells parallel to each other, but oriented at approximately 45 degrees to adjacent parallel bundles of cells. Thus, a section across the left ventricle wall has myocytes oriented longitudinally, obliquely, and in cross-section. These layers are attached to each other by connective tissue matrix fibers as previously discussed. Contraction of the ventricle takes place in a screw-like manner, as the obliquely oriented layers shorten in a curvilinear pattern from apex to base. Upon diastolic relaxation, since the layers and the individual myocytes are...

Anaplastic Astrocytoma

The AA can be quite variable in location but nearly all are supratentorial and most are centered in the deep white matter and may secondarily involve the deep gray-matter structures. These masses generally have poorly defined margins and are somewhat heterogeneous in signal intensity characteristics on all MR pulse sequences, most evident on the FLAIR and T2-weighted images (Fig. 1). The amount of surrounding vasogenic edema is quite variable but more commonly relatively mild and frequently indistinguishable from the margins of the nonenhancing component of the mass. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the true extent of neoplastic cell invasion when planning complete resection by MRI. FLAIR and T2-weighted images certainly demonstrate the extent of parenchymal involvement better than the T1-weighted images but tumor cells can extend into parenchyma that is normal in signal intensity on all pulse sequences. Of the two, the FLAIR images generally make it easier to appreciate the...

Parzen Window Classifier

The Parzen window classifier 20,27 is similar to the kNN classifier in that it is nonparametric. It obtains a nonparametric probability density estimate of the feature space for each class, allowing the class of each voxel to be determined according to the resulting posterior probabilities. In its most basic form, a voxel is assigned to the class that has the most training samples within a predetermined window of the feature space centered at the unclassified voxel. Because the Parzen window method (as well as Gaussian clustering and kNN methods) classifies voxels independently, it may yield noisy segmentations therefore, smoothing of the originally classified data may be performed (e.g., with iterative relaxation methods) improving the appearance of the segmented image.

Pharmacology And Therapeutics

GPCRs are involved in cardiovascular regulation in numerous ways. At least 55 types of GPCRs are known to directly mediate neuronal and endocrine regulation of cardiac and vascular responses, and many more influence cardiovascular functions indirectly, via primary effects on the neuronal, endocrine, and metabolic regulatory mechanisms that control various aspects of the functioning of cardiac and vascular cells and tissues. These receptors are widely expressed in different cell types of the heart and blood vessels, where they mediate the actions of a variety of hormones growth factors, neurotransmitters, biologically active peptides, and local mediators, and are consequently involved in the regulation of numerous cellular processes and physiological functions. This review is focused mainly on direct receptor-mediated control of myocardial functions and constriction and relaxation responses of the vascular walls. to their corresponding receptors, activating them as agonists or blocking...

Autonomic Neuroeffector Junctions

Release of neurotransmitter causes a transient change in membrane potential of the postjunctional cell. If the result of a single pulse is a depolarization, the response is called an excitatory junction potential (EJP). EJPs summate and facilitate with repetitive stimulation, and upon reaching sufficient amplitude, the threshold for the generation of an action potential is reached, which results in mechanical contraction. If the result of a single pulse of neurotransmitter release is a hyperpolarization, the response is called an inhibitory junction potential (IJP). IJPs prevent action potential discharge in spontaneously active smooth muscle and thus cause relaxation.

Receptor Subtypes As Novel Targets

The first division of adrenoceptors into two classes was based on the potency of a series of catecholamine derivatives to elicit functional responses in vascular and other smooth muscles and in the heart.10 a-Adrenoceptor activation elicited contraction of vascular smooth muscle and had little effect on the heart, while p-adreno-ceptor activation had positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart and relaxed smooth muscle tissues. Further pharmacological adrenoceptor classifications allowed a distinction between -adrenoceptors predominantly responsible for cardiac stimulation and p2-adrenoceptors that mediate relaxation of vascular and bronchial smooth muscles.11 This distinction allowed the development of selective p1-adrenoceptor antagonists for hypertension and other cardiovascular indications and selective p2-adrenoceptor agonists for the symptomatic treatment of asthma.

Patterns of stimulation

Train-of-four denotes four successive 200 microsecond stimuli in 2 seconds (2 Hz). The ratio of the responses to the first and fourth twitches is a sensitive indicator of nondepolarizing muscle relaxation. Useful in monitoring blockade required for surgical relaxation and in assessing recovery from blockade.

Mechanism of Transcription and Replication

HDAg shares some properties with transcription factors. Thus, direct or indirect binding of HDAg with the host polymerase (and or other transcription factors) may lead to a relaxation of normal template requirements. Indeed, HDAg has been shown to bind to both HDV RNA and pol II (Lin et al. 1990 Chao et al. 1991 Yamaguchi et al. 2001).

The Spiritual Dimension

Revival of spirituality one of the pleasures of aging is relaxation of defenses, freeing individuals for new tasks. The wisest of the aged are advocates for the aged. Hope tends to accompany advocacy it is the hope that is experienced not only in providing a better life for oneself but providing better treatment for older persons in general.

Signal to Noise Ratio

The most important factors for SNRint in a 'H-MRS experiment are to be aware of are the number of protons contributing to the total signal N, the field strength of the static magnetic field B0 and the relaxation properties of a specific metabolite. With a direct, linear proportionality of SNRint to N and B0 these parameters define the intrinsic SNR available for the spectroscopy experiment, which means that an increase in B0 from 1.5Tto 3.0 T will theoreticallyboost the SNRby a factor of two. This achievable SNR will always be degraded by the natural phenomena of relaxation, expressed as an exponential signal decay after full excitation with the relaxation constants T2 and exponential return of the spin system into thermal equilibrium with the time constant T1. Fig. 6.3. Spectra acquired on the same phantom containing the main brain metabolites at 1.5 T (a) and at 3.0T (b) usingthe same sequence parameters (PRESS TR 2000 ms, TE 35 ms), showing the increased SNR, the improved spectral...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI is emerging as a particularly advantageous modality for MI because of its high spatial resolution (when compared with PET and SPECT), very good sample penetration (when compared with optical imaging methods), it's widespread clinical availability, and lack of ionizing radiation. A tremendous drawback, however, is its low sensitivity compared with these other methods, which necessitates the development ofpowerful amplification strategies. MR contrast agents that could serve as potential bases for molecular imaging probes are in clinical use but specific derivatives for molecular imaging have not yet been approved (23). In general, MR contrast agents are designed to shorten the relaxation times of the tissue of interest and therefore increase the relaxation rates (37). There are two major classes of MR contrast agents paramagnetic contrast agents which are designed to predominantly affect T1 and thus tend to provide increased MR signal and superparamagnetic agents and agents...

Molecular Imaging With Iron Oxides

Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIO) are potent MRI contrast agents. The iron produces strong local disruptions in the magnetic field which leads to increased T2* relaxation. This increased relaxation causes decreased image intensity in areas with iron oxide accumulation (also known as susceptibility artifacts). Because of the extremely large change in MRI signal induced by superparamagnetic particles, they offer a potential solution to the problem of MR insensitivity, and have been developed for a wide variety of contrast agent applications, including imaging vasculature, bowel, liver, spleen, lymphatics, tumors, and stem cell therapy (38-40). In particular, dextran-coated USPIO particles with a 15 - to -25-nm diameter have a very long circulating half-life and are preferentially taken up by macrophages and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in the body. This uptake allows them to be employed for passive targeted imaging of pathological inflammatory processes, such as...

Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents

Depolarizing blockade is characterized by muscle fasciculation followed by relaxation, absence of fade after tetanic or train-of-four stimulation, absence of posttetanic potentiation, potentiation of the block by anticholinesterases, and antagonism by nondepolarizing relaxants.

Oo Reconnect to chapter 2 Proteins page 54 Crossbridge Cycling

Relaxation Second, when ACh is broken down, the stimulus to the sarcolemma and the membranes within the muscle fiber ceases. The calcium pump (which requires ATP) quickly moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, decreasing the calcium ion concentration of the cytosol. The cross-bridge linkages break (remember, this also requires ATP, although it is not broken down in this step), and tropomyosin rolls back into its groove, preventing any cross-bridge attachment (see fig. 9.11a). Consequently, the muscle fiber relaxes. Table 9.1 summarizes the major events leading to muscle contraction and relaxation.

Origin of genome duality

The hypothesis that nuclear dualism enables ciliates to evolve proteins in novel manners is supported by phylogenetic analyses based on protein-coding genes, such as elongation factor 1 alpha, heat shock protein 70, and eukaryotic release factor 1, that are unable to recover a consistent topology of ciliates due to rapid rates of substitution in this lineage (Budin and Philippe 1998 Bhattacharya and Ehlting 1995 Moreira et al. 2002 Moreira et al. 1999). A striking example of rapid protein evolution in ciliates is seen in histone H4, which is highly conserved in most eukaryotes but shows dramatic patterns of diversification in ciliates (Katz et al. 2004). Analyses of histone H4 and five other proteins show that ciliates tend to have more rapid rates of substitution and higher ratios of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dN dS) than other major lineages of eukaryotes. In addition, both substitution rate and subscripts dN...

Histone Acetylation And Chromatin Structure

HATs is thought to result in relaxation of nucleosomal structure by weakening the interaction of the positively charged histone tails with the negatively charged phosphate backbone of DNA, allowing access of transcriptional activators and gene induction. Deacetylation of nucleosomal histones by HDACs results in transcriptional repression.

Functional Development of the ENS

In recent years, pharmacologic and physiologic studies have provided evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is the most important mediator in nonadrenergic, noncholin-ergic relaxation of the gastrointestinal tract. By 12 weeks' gestation, nitrergic neurons appear in the myenteric ganglia, at all levels of the gut, and begin plexus formation. Nitrergic innervation in the submucous plexus becomes evident after 14 weeks. As gestational age increases, ni-trergic innervation becomes richer and more organized. Increasing numbers of nitrergic nerve fibers are seen in the circular muscle some of these fibers project from the myenteric plexus. Thus, the onset and pace of development of nitrergic innervation are similar to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation and occur before peptider-gic innervation 33 .

The elements of a therapeutic professional relationship

All these terms are used to describe the same qualities and as they are all used it is important for the counsellor to be familiar with their meaning. Winnicott's explorations of the mother and infant identified the 'good-enough' mother as having particular qualities - an attitude of being emotionally available, supportive, aware and understanding of the infant's vulnerability. Winnicott (1988) used the term 'holding' to refer to the actual physical holding of the infant by the mother and also the emotional holding of attunement in the mother's mind. That relationship could then become 'facilitating' for emotional growth and development. These ideas can be transferred to a professional consultation and the empathic understanding of a patient's anxiety. Winnicott emphasised that constructive relaxation could take place in the confidence of a living relationship. Further a well-timed interpretation of correct understanding 'gives a sense of being held, that...

Biosynthesis Reactivity and Physiological Functions of Nitrogen Monoxide

Many biological actions of NO' are triggered by its interaction with guanylyl cyclase. This heme-containing enzyme is present in the cytosolic fraction of virtually all mammalian cells, with the highest concentrations found in the lungs and in the brain. Guanylyl cyclase, activated when NO' binds to its reduced heme, catalyzes the conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) into cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an important intracellular signal molecule that is involved in the regulation of smooth muscle relaxation and causes blood vessels to dilate 2 .

Brain Imaging And Related Methods

When the application of the RF energy is terminated, the system reapproaches equilibrium, a process known as relaxation. Different types of tissue have different rates of relaxation, which is why we can obtain MR images that can distinguish between gray and white matter, bone, cerebrospinal fluid, and vasculature. For most functional MRI studies, the critical source of contrast derives from changes in the oxygen content of cerebral vasculature, typically referred to as Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) signal (Bandettini, Wong, Hinks, Tikofsky, & Hyde, 1992 Kwong et al., 1992 Ogawa, Lee, Kay, & Tank, 1990 Ogawa etal., 1992).

Mechanism Of Action

Effect of pilocarpine and atropine on intramuscular spaces within the ciliary muscle of vervet monkey. (A) Intracameral heavy pilocarpine solution induced crowding of muscle bundles within the anterior part of the longitudinal muscle. Arrows indicate zone of localized contraction. (B) Intramuscular pilocarpine followed by intracameral heavy atropine solution (atropine was allowed to act for 3 minutes) induced loose arrangement of anterior longitudinal muscle bundles. Arrows indicate boundary between zone of localized relaxation and other contracted parts of the muscle. (C) Same protocol as in B, but atropine was allowed to act for 10 minutes. Zone of loosely arranged muscle bundles reaches far toward posterior region. Only the posterior extremity of muscle appears intensely contracted. Arrows indicate boundary between contracted and relaxed muscle portions (Heidenhain's Azan stain, ( x 35). Reprinted with permission from Bar ny EH, Rohen JW. Localized contraction and...

General Treatment Considerations

The literature on treatment of sexual aversion emphasizes the usefulness of cognitive behavioral treatment approaches (9,12) and there is support for the practical and relatively brief use of systematic desensitization (13). In this case, treatment consisted first of the creation of a hierarchy of aversion- and anxiety-provoking images, ranging from masturbation, which evoked the least anxiety, to intercourse, which evoked the greatest anxiety. In addition, Joyce was taught diaphragmatic deep breathing and an autogenic relaxation technique. The least anxiety-provoking stimuli were addressed first, with Joyce imagining each situation and reporting being able to remain relaxed and anxiety-free before each stimulus was subsequently approached in vivo. Importantly, sexual situations were designed to remain fully in her control Bill had agreed to allow Joyce to determine the rate at which each of the items on the hierarchy was engaged. Fifteen sessions conducted over a period of 5 months...

Energy Minimization Method

Is stochastic based, such as simulated annealing 56-58 , Geman and Geman's Gibbs sampler 22 , etc. They are all stochastic relaxation methods and theoretically can reach global minima by reducing the temperature slowly enough. Unfortunately, these algorithms normally require a huge amount of time and are intolerable for practical applications due to the extensive computation. The other category are deterministic methods, e.g., Besag's iterative conditional mode (ICM) 20 and highest confidence first (HCF) 21 proposed by Chou and Brown. These numerical approximation algorithms have much faster convergence speed and are often used as computationally efficient alternatives. ICM can be regarded as a special case of Gibbs sampler with an annealing temperature (T 0). It may converge only to a local minimum and the results depend strongly on the initial estimate and order of updates, while the HCF algorithm, rather than updating the segmentation results via a raster scan order as that in ICM,...

Antibodyhapten Interactions

Lancet (1977) in Chemical Relaxation in Molecular Biology (I. Pecht & R. Rigler, eds.) pp. 2-3, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 2M. Eigen (1974) in Quantum Statistical Mechanics in the Natural Sciences (S. L. Minz & S. M. Wiedermayer, eds.) pp. 37-61, Plenum Press, New York.

The Evidence Base For Behaviour Therapy

Behaviour therapy has been shown to reduce symptoms compared with relaxation (Abramowitz, 1997) and anxiety management training (Lindsay, Crino & Andrews, 1997). Foa & Kozak (1996) reviewed 12 outcome studies and found 83 of patients who completed exposure and response prevention treatment were post-treatment responders. Stanley & Turner (1995) concluded that about 75 of OCD patients show substantial improvement after 12 to 15 sessions of behaviour therapy. O'Sullivan & Marks (1991) reviewed nine follow-up studies of OCD exposure and response prevention treatment completers. The follow-up duration was between one and six years with a mean follow up of three years. Seventy-nine per cent of patients had improved or were much improved and symptom improvement was maintained irrespective of the length of follow up. However, these results are for treatment completers. About 25 of OCD patients offered ERP refuse it (Kozak, 1999) and others drop out or do not improve with ERP....

Gj gss gmax gmin1 exp[AV Vq gmta

Where gmax and gmin are maximal and minimal con-ductanes obtained at lowest and highest Vj, V0 is the voltage at which the voltage-sensitive component of gj (gmax - gmin) is reduced by 50 , and A is a slope factor from which the equivalent number of gating changes, n, can be calculated (Spray et al., 1981a). Evaluation of voltage sensitivity after the exogenous expression of connexins in mammalian cells or in weakly endoge-nously coupled cell pairs has indicated that for most connexins, the steady-state conductance is symmetric around 0 mV and is well fit to Boltzmann relationships (Fig. 7). Moreover, Boltzmann parameters are now known to be distinct for gap junction channels formed of each connexin subtype, as is described in more detail in Section D. For most of the gap junction channels that have been studied, the relaxation of junctional current from its initial to steady-state levels is well fit by a single

Conventional NMR Spectroscopy

100-500 L of sample) is placed in a 5-mm glass tube and inserted into the bore of a superconducting magnet at field strengths ranging from 9.4 to 18.7 T. These are commonly referred to as 400-800-MHz NMR systems on the basis of the proton resonance frequency. The relaxation of nuclei following a train of RF pulses is then measured and translated into chemical shifts, coupling constants, and integration data. The resulting signals are presented typically as a 1-dimensional (1D) proton NMR spectrum (Figure 8.1). The term 1D refers to one dimension of frequency, as the y axis is the signal intensity. The spectrum is representative of a urine sample from a healthy volunteer the most common urinary and plasma metabolites are catalogued elsewhere 17, 22 . The presence of a metabolite tends to be confirmed by spiking available standards into the biofluid sample. Thus, the main signals are often readily assigned. However, overlapping signals and multiplicity patterns tend to complicate...

Selfhelp Books And Computer Programmes

There are many self-help books for OCD, such as Living with Fear (Marks, 1978) and The OCD Workbook (Hyman & Pedrick, 1999). An international group has developed and tested a computer-administrated system, called BT STEPS, for assessing and treating OCD via the telephone and computer. An initial trial (Bachofen et al., 1999), of the computer programme treatment found an average 33 improvement on Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), with significant change in YBOCS only in those who completed at least two exposure and response-prevention sessions. A recent trial of 218 patients compared the computer-guided behaviour treatment to clinician-guided behaviour treatment and relaxation (Griest et al., 2002). The relaxation was ineffective, whereas both the behaviour therapy conditions were effective, with a significantly greater improvement in the clinician-guided group. Patients in the computer-guided treatment group improved more the longer they spent telephoning the computer...

Improved Concentration

In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted In significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest In a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and Increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce Increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate mathematical computations (Field et al 2005). In a RCT, lavender aromatherapy tended to enhance calculating speed and calculating accuracy In female but not male subjects (Liu et al 2004), but results from another study suggest 2007 Elsevier Australia

Pharmacotherapy for Men with ED

Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 As we have already seen, NO is required for normal erectile function (13). NO is a gas and is derived from L-arginine (an amino acid) and oxygen in the presence of the enzyme NOS. NO, interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase, which then dephosphorylates gua-nosine tri-phosphate (GTP) to produce the second messenger cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP). It is the amount of cGMP present that determines the extent of relaxation in corporal smooth muscle by stimulating the reduction of intracellular calcium (23,24).

Physical characteristics

The internal anatomy of kinorhynchs is related to the outer segmentation, nervous system, muscles, and glandular system, which are all distinctively segmented. Simultaneous contraction of segmental dorsoventral muscles increases the pressure of the body-cavity fluid in the trunk, displaces it forward, and everts the head. Scalids move forward, plow backward through the interstices around and propel the kynorhynch forward. Special head retractor muscles retract the introvert back into the trunk in synchrony with relaxation of the dorsoventral muscles.

Causes and symptoms

A precise determination of the cause of any individual case of ED is often difficult and may be impossible because ED is often due to multiple factors. This is a consequence of the complicated nature of the human sexual response and the complex physiology of penile erection and relaxation. Normal erectile function requires the

Chromatin Structure and Gene Regulation

As genes become transcriptionally active, regions around the genes become highly sensitive to the action of DNase I (see Chapter 11). These regions, called DNase I hypersensitive sites, frequently develop about 1000 nu-cleotides upstream of the start site of transcription, suggesting that the chromatin in these regions adopts a more open configuration during transcription. This relaxation of the chromatin structure may allow regulatory proteins access to binding sites on the DNA. Indeed, many DNase I hypersensitive sites correspond to known binding sites for regulatory proteins.

Evidencebased Psychotherapy With Older People

To date the only meta-analytic review of the nonpharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders has been carried out by Nordhus & Pallesen (2003). For this meta-analysis, the authors identified 15 psychosocial studies looking at the treatment of anxiety disorders in older people. The selection criteria used were quite flexible in order to include enough studies to permit an adequate meta-analysis. The studies varied in quality and many used relaxation as a primary treatment approach for anxiety reduction. Some of the studies were pilot studies and some were published as proceedings of a conference. Overall, Nordhus & Pallesen (2003) calculated a mean effect size for psychosocial treatments of 0.55. Using the classification adopted for the behavioural sciences (Cohen, 1977) 0.2 is considered a small effect size, 0.5 is considered a moderate effect size and 0.8 is considered a large effect size. It was noted that effect sizes are reduced when considering psychosocial treatments...

Endothelium Derived Dilating Factors

The level of arterial tone in vivo is thought to be dynamically modulated by factors released from the vascular endothelium. Indeed, endothelial cells are thought to regulate vascular smooth muscle tone primarily by releasing nitric oxide, EDHF, and or prosta-cyclin. From a wealth of studies, it is generally believed that nitric oxide is a major chemical mediator of endo-thelium-derived relaxation in both conduit and resistance arteries, whereas EDHF may be more involved in the relaxation of resistance arteries. For example, acetylcholine-induced relaxation of large arteries may be mediated entirely by the release of nitric oxide, and exposing large arteries to nitric oxide synthase inhibitors eliminates acetylcholine-induced relaxation. The vaso-dilating action of nitric oxide and other nitro-containing compounds may rely on the activation of BKCa channels and possibly KATP channels to hyperpolarize the smooth muscle membrane. In instances in which nitric oxide has been shown to...

Tendon Or Muscle Stretch Reflexes

The extent and duration of the response Normally, only the quadriceps contracts in response to patellar tendon stretching and not all of the quadriceps. In an abnormal reflex more of the muscle contracts, it lasts longer, and other muscles (adductors or even the opposite quadriceps) may also contract. A normal knee reflex might be visible contraction of the quadriceps and no movement of the leg. The abnormal knee reflex might consist of extension of the knee to a straight leg position and a slow relaxation.

Cardiovascular Circulatory Patterns

The pulmonary cycle begins in the right ventricle of the heart. Contraction of the right ventricular wall applies pressure to the blood. This forces the tricuspid valve closed and the closed valve prevents blood from going back into the right atrium. The pressure forces blood past the semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. Upon relaxation of the right ventricle, back pressure of the blood in the pulmonary trunk closes the pulmonary semilunar valve. The blood then passes into the lungs through the pulmonary arterial system. Gases are exchanged between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood in the capillaries next to the alveoli. This blood, now saturated with oxygen, is collected by the pulmonary veins and carried to the left atrium of the heart. This completes the pulmonary cycle.

Assay Systems For Addressing New Targets

In addition to cell-based technologies, many technologies are available to identify small molecules that bind with high affinity to new proteins 72 . These methods utilize classical affinity techniques coupled to mass spectrometry, NMR, scanning calorimery and other physical methods to identify the bound molecules those that are identified must later be tested in cellular systems to show that they do have functional activity. Structural approaches can be used to design drugs to block protein-protein interactions. The limiting factor to the use of NMR is the inability to get concentrations of 0.1 mM of protein in solution. Recently, an NMR technique called transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) has been described. TROSY can be a powerful tool in studying protein-protein interactions and for studying the structure of proteins larger than 100 kDa. Transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy does not use the traditional 2-D NMR spectra, but focuses on one of the four...

Mechanical properties of the relaxed EGJ

Increased EGJ compliance may help explain why patients with hiatus hernia have a distinct mechanistic reflux profile compared to patients without hiatus hernia 52 . Anatomical alterations, such as hiatal hernia, dilatation of the diaphragmatic hiatus, and disruption of the gastroesopha-geal flap valve may alter the elastic characteristics of the hiatus such that this factor is no longer protective in preventing gastroesophageal reflux. In that setting, reflux no longer requires two hits because the extrinsic sphincteric mechanism is already disrupted. Thus, the only prerequisite for reflux becomes LES relaxation, be that in the setting of swallow-induced relaxation, tLESR, or a period of prolonged LES relaxation.

Omphalocele and gastroschisis

Management decompress stomach before induction intubate awake or asleep avoid nitrous oxide insure adequate muscle relaxation replace third-space fluid loses aggressively the neonate commonly remains intubated after the procedure and is weaned from the ventilator over the next 1-2 days.

Solutions To Exercises Lesson

PULMONARY CYCLE The pulmonary cycle begins in the right ventricle. Contraction of the wall of the right ventricle forces the tricuspid valve to close. This keeps blood from flowing back into the right atrium. The pressure forces blood past the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. Upon relaxation of the right ventricle, back pressure of the blood in the pulmonary trunk closes the pulmonary semilunar valve. The blood then passes into the lungs through the pulmonary arterial system. Gases are exchanged between the alveoli of the lungs and the blood in the capillaries next to the alveoli. The oxygenated blood is collected by the pulmonary veins and carried to the left atrium of the heart. (para 9-8b) 20. SYSTEMIC CYCLE Oxygenated blood is moved from the left atrium into the left ventricle. Contraction of the wall of the left ventricle closes the mitral valve, which prevents blood from returning to the left atrium. The pressure forces blood past the aortic semilunar...

And Resynchronization Therapy

Conduction delays in the atrioventricular node or in the ventricles associated with dilated cardiomyopathy are considered to contribute to left ventricular dysfunction by impairing atrioventricular synchrony, uniformity of ventricular contraction, or relaxation of the left ventricle. It is noteworthy that approx 30 of patients with severe congestive heart failure have intraven-tricular conduction disturbances, characterized electrically by a widened QRS complex and mechanically by discoordination of ventricular contraction and relaxation patterns (10). A widened QRS duration has been associated with increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure.

The Quest for Improved Image Quality and Shorter Acquisition Times

The SNR of a 3.0 T MRI scanner is theoretically twice as much as the SNR obtained at 1.5 T. Consequently, imaging at 3.0 T enables higher resolution scans with higher imaging matrices and or thinner slices to be obtained that permit visualization of more detailed anatomical structures while keeping the scan time virtually unchanged. These advantages come at a trade-off of an increased sensitivity to field inhomogeneities and changes in relaxation times, which in turn produce changes in image contrast. At comparable acquisition times, images obtained at 3.0 T have a higher quality with an improved resolution than images obtained at 1.5 T. Alternatively, 3.0 T MRI can be used to obtain acceptable images, similar to those obtained at 1.5 T, but at a fraction of the time, thus reducing potential motion artefacts and improving patients' comfort.

Drug Delivery System Complications

Typical narcotic side effects include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, constipation, sexual dysfunction, and respiratory depression. The exact mechanism of pruritus is unclear. Histamine release is not thought to be the etiology, but antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, are often effective. Nausea and vomiting are common with intrathecal opioids. It is thought that the side effects result from interaction with opioid receptors in the area postrema. Nausea could also be caused by unresolved constipation. These symptoms tend to be dose-related and are usually relieved by anti-emetics, such as metoclopramide, prochloroperazine, and ondansetron. Urinary retention is an adverse effect most commonly found in elderly men with enlarged prostates. It is not a dose-related phenomenon, but rather a drug interaction with opioid receptors in the sacral spinal cord. Their stimulation causes detrusor muscle relaxation and an increase in bladder capacity. Adjunctive treatment with...

The Length Tension Relationship

It has been convenient to classify muscle contractions as either isotonic or isometric. If both ends of the muscle are firmly fixed the length cannot change and the contraction is termed isometric only tension can be developed. The curves in Fig. 6 were generated in isometric muscles by varying the muscle length between beats and measuring tensions during contraction and relaxation. However, if the muscle contracts against a finite load then it will shorten whenever its ability to develop force exceeds the load against which it is contracting. If the load remains constant throughout the contraction (as often occurs in the laboratory) the contraction is termed isotonic. Look at the example in Fig. 7. The muscle strip at its starting length is under a resting tension termed the preload. When caused to contract the muscle tenses from point A to point B in an isometric (no change in length) fashion. At that length the muscle is capable of developing much more force (D) than the load...

Image Segmentation Layer

The GMM approach does not consider the spatial arrangement of class labels in an image, which can be quite useful for relaxation labeling 28 . Markov random fields (MRF) have been shown as a powerful class of techniques 29-31 for modeling the spatial arrangement of class labels. MRF can be expressed in terms of a probabilistic framework and they can be combined with a statistical observed model of the mammogram. An MRF can increase the homogeneity of the formed regions that leads to a reduction in the false positives.

Education And Training In Health Psychology

And rotations as ideal components of postdoctoral training programs. Finally, they recommended at least 6 of 14 techniques and skills for acquisition during the 2-year clinical postdoctoral residency. The list included such techniques and skills as relaxation therapies, psychotherapy (individual, group, family), assessments (neuropsychological, specific client populations such as pain patients), biofeedback, behavior therapy, health promotion, and compliance motivation. The availability of the Internet and the telehealth technology are important training challenges in the science and practice of health psychology.

Parameter Estimation for High Level Process

The Metropolis algorithm is a relaxation algorithm to find a global maximum. The algorithm assumes that the classes of all neighbors of y are known. The highlevel process is assumed to be formed of m-independent processes each of the m processes is modeled by Gibbs Markov random which follow Eq. 9.2. Then y can be classified using the fact that p(xi y) is proportional to p(y xt) P(xt ns), where s is the neighbor set to site S belonging to class x, p(x ns) is computed from Eq. 9.2, and p(y xt) is computed from the estimated density for each class.

Behaviour Therapy Rationale

Behaviour therapies for depression are underpinned by learning theory as a means of explaining the decline into and resolution of the depressive state and are primarily aimed at engaging or re-engaging the patient in pleasurable and consequently positively reinforcing behaviours. Relative to psychotherapy, behaviour therapy concentrates more on behaviour itself and less on a presumed underlying cause. The basic premise of behavioural treatments is that depression is a learned response in light of low rates of positively reinforcing behaviours and insufficient positive reward from routine behaviour. The aim therefore is to increase the reward experience through behavioural activation. Interventions combine skills based learning such as relaxation skills and problems solving with distress tolerance for negative emotions. Two studies have shown this approach to outperformed control conditions. Shaw (1977) found that although behaviour therapy patients did not outperform those in CT, they...

Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Embodiment and What the Book Is About

How does the body shape the way we think Is this even the right question, or should it perhaps be the other way around how does our thinking influence the body It seems obvious that the way we move, walk, talk, write, dance, and sing are all controlled by the brain, i.e., the brain quite obviously controls the body.We decide that we want to drink a cup of tea, go see a movie, or do some push-ups, and then we do it. But the brain controls the body not only at the conscious but also at the unconscious level. The basic digestive and life maintenance functions such as breathing and heartbeat, on the one hand, and automatic movements on the other are only a few examples we do not explicitly tell our stomach to digest, and when walking we do not consciously control the movement of our legs the control is largely automatic, unless there are disturbances. If we do try and consciously control our movements, we are likely to trip over this is a phenomenon that many of us will have experienced...

Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to the Study of Development

MRI has had a dramatic impact in the diagnosis of a variety of diseases and the in vivo study of the developing brain. This technique provides high spatial resolution images of the brain based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of water protons and other nuclei found in brain tissue (Young, 1988). NMR consists of applying a radio frequency (RF) pulse (with an excitation frequency coinciding with the natural frequency of the system, known as the Larmor frequency) to the tissue. The RF pulse flips the net magnetization perpendicular to the main field. The MR image is generated by differences in the concentration of nuclei and their nuclear magnetic relaxation times (Tx and T2) in the different tissue environments (Bloch, 1946 Hahn, 1950). Tj relaxation refers to the return of precessing nuclei to alignment with the main field after excitation (i.e., longitudinal relaxation, or spin-lattice). This relaxation is related to surrounding tissue composition in that small water...

Peripartum Hemorrhage

Retained placenta incidence is about 1 of all vaginal deliveries and usually requires manual exploration of the uterus if no epidural or spinal was used analgesia can be provided with IV opioids, nitrous oxide, or small doses of ketamine if uterine relaxation is required, and bleeding is minimal, nitroglycerin, 50-100 mcg boluses, can be given (occasionally general anesthesia is required for relaxation). 8. Uterine inversion is very rare and is a true obstetrical emergency general anesthesia is generally required to allow immediate uterine relaxation these patients can exsanguinate rapidly.

Bladder Bowel and Sexual Disturbances

Disturbances of defecation and especially micturition are among the most disabling features of MS, occurring in up to 78 during the course of the illness (134). Patients may complain of urinary frequency, urgency, and incontinence. Alternatively, the urge to urinate may be accompanied by an inability to voluntarily initiate urine flow. History alone is an unreliable indicator of the physiological status of micturition and must be supplemented by further investigation (135,136). Usually, this requires only a determination of voided volume followed by measurement of residual urine volume, either by direct catheterization or by some other method for estimation, such as ultrasonography or radionuclide study (137). Disturbances of micturition may be divided into failure to store urine, failure to empty the bladder adequately, or a combination of both. In some patients, good contraction of the bladder detrusor is inappropriately associated with contraction of the external ure-thral...

Calcium Ion Indicator Dyes

Kao and Tsien3 studied the Ca2+-binding kinetics of fura-2 and azo-1 by temperature-jump relaxation methods. In 140 mM KCl at 20 C, the respective association and dissociation rate constants for fura-2 were 6 X 108 M_1s_1 and 97 s1 these kinetic properties were insensitive to hydrogen ion concentration over the pH range from 7.4 to 8.4. Azo-1 was studied in 140 mM KCl At 10 C, azo-

Multislice GRE Techniques

Tilted Optimized Non Saturated

These techniques use longer decrease in repetition time TR. As a result, the saturation effects lead to signal loss with the use of larger flip angles. This approach using longer decrease in TR improves the SNR. Other ways are also used to decrease saturation effects. Common use of paramagnetic contrast agent such as gadolinium chelate causes spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) shortening of blood (see Fig. 3.25). Consequently, the T1 recovery (from short T1 to normal T1 values) is faster with less saturation effects. In routine, multiple overlapping thin-slab acquisition (MOTSA) tilt optimized nonsaturated excitation (TONE) are also promising techniques to reduce saturation effects.

Bloodinjury And Injection Phobia

Not addressed Four groups stress inoculation, six sessions training or semi-automated behaviour therapy (modelling, relaxation, video-exposure) Waiting-list 'positive dental experience' from dentist hypnotherapy (relaxation reinforced with suggestions) or behaviour therapy (relaxation, exposure to anxiety provoking hierarchy, biofeedback) systematic desensitisation (SD) (to graded video scenes, relaxation, EMG biofeedback) alone or SD and 'cognitive coping' SDCC, challenging negative self-statements) Four groups allocated to self-instruction training or applied relaxation 'cognitive or physiological reactors' high low arousal and coping no coping instruction cf. relaxation control group Three groups 10 sessions EMG feedback, progressive relaxation control group (seIf-relaxation) Two groups massed spaced cognitive therapy and relaxation desensitisation (audio presented hierarchy), video modelling and relaxation and imaginal desensitisation relaxation placebo. Waiting-list

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

Recently, four models attempting to explain the pathomechanism of FSHD have been postulated (97). In a cis-spreading scenario, interstitial deletion of D4Z4 leads to local chromatin relaxation with spreading of upregulation (94,98,99). The insulator mechanism predicts inefficiency of the contracted D4Z4 boundary element to the distally located heterochromatin (100) and in the chromatin cis-loop model, the number of D4Z4 repeats determines the 3D chromatin structure and, thus, direct interactions between D4Z4 and the upstream genes (95). The fourth model supplements the third one and implies the perturbation of 4qter with nuclear lamina and subsequent misbalance of chromatin and transcription factors (101-102).

Cognitive And Behavioural Therapies

Over the past decade, a number of studies have examined the efficacy of psychological (mostly cognitive-behavioural) treatments for social anxiety disorder. The most commonly investigated treatments have been in vivo exposure (with or without the addition of cognitive restructuring techniques), social skills training, and relaxation training. The International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety's 'Consensus Statement on Social Anxiety Disorder' concluded that there is good evidence for the efficacy of exposure-based cognitive-behavioural interventions for social anxiety (Ballenger et al., 1998). Accordingly, these interventions receive the bulk of our attention in this review. Exposure to feared situations is a central component of most treatments for social anxiety disorder. Exposure can be conducted either imaginally, in role plays or in vivo, to help clients habituate to anxiety-provoking situations and to provide an opportunity to gather disconfirmatory information and...

Endothelium Derived Vasoactive Substances

Endothelium plays a central role in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone, including that of coronary artery. Although multiple pathways are involved in en-dothelium-induced relaxation, the major mechanism is via release of NO. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthesis from l-arginine, has been a widely used tool to determine the role of NO. For example, exposure to L-NAME decreases hyperpolarization and relaxation of smooth muscle by acetylcholine demonstrating the participation of NO (69). The release of NO contributes to flow-related vasodilatation, reactive hyperemia, hy-percapnic acidosis, the vasodilatation by adenosine, and the maintenance of flow in the presence of coronary artery stenosis (70). Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors appear to play important roles, especially in the microvascula-ture (82). The chemical identity of EDHF has been related to several factors, such as epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) (83), K+ (84), and anandamide (85). There is an emerging...

Clinical Features and Natural History

Unlike KSS, ocular motility abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy are commonly subclinical and have been observed for the most part in adults. A number of authors have described progressive limitation of voluntary eye movements as well as markedly decreased maximum saccadic velocity and reduced smooth pursuit gain, but it is not clear whether these eye movement disorders result from a neurological or myopathic defect or both.14-123-143-290-364-449-484-503 Clinical myotonia, that is, delayed muscular relaxation, most strikingly affects the limb muscles (e.g., persistent grip), but may on occasion involve the extraocular muscles134 immediately after sustaining gaze in a certain direction, the patient cannot promptly move the eyes in the opposite direction. Bell's phenomenon is particularly useful to elicit sustained upgaze in an infant or uncooperative child.

Cardiac Disease Introduction

Prior to the eagerly awaited outcome of the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) trial, detailed below, much of the literature had relied on cardiac nurse-led psychosocial interventions (often termed psychological interventions or counselling), with variable outcomes. This led to conflicting views about the efficacy of addressing psychological issues in cardiac patients. Linden's (2000) review of psychological treatments in cardiac rehabilitation programmes commented on the differing treatment approaches ranging from relaxation breathing retraining, unstructured support or psychoeducation to improve compliance, to psychological interventions to reduce emotional distress. He concluded that critical differences in study outcomes can be explained by the finding that studies which failed to have an impact on levels of psychological distress also fail to have an impact on mortality or event recurrence.

Case Study of Multidimensional FCS Readout

Theophylline therapy has been a cornerstone of asthma therapy through the years. Theophylline inhibits the breakdown enzyme phosphodiesterase with a resultant increase in cAMP concentrations, which results in smooth muscle cell relaxation of the bronchial tree. In view of the very small margin between

Inward Rectifier K Channels

Inward rectifier K+ channels have been identified in cerebral, mesenteric, and coronary arteries (Edwards et al., 1988 Quayle et al., 1993). In these arterial cells, stimulation with high K+ produced vascular relaxation instead of contraction (Edwards and Hirst, 1988 McCarron and Halpern, 1990). This peculiar property was well explained by the presence and activation of this inward rectifier K+ channel. In general, inward rectifier K+ channels are thought to stabilize the membrane potential at low levels in cardiac cells however, in these arteries these channels are thought to stabilize the membrane potential at a high level by channel closure (Quayle et al., 1993 Kubo et al., 1993). The Kir2.0 family is thought to provide these inward rectifier K+ channels

Changes In The Conformation Of The Head Of Myosin Drive Muscle Contraction

The major biochemical events occurring during one cycle of muscle contraction and relaxation can be represented in the five steps shown in Figure 49-6 (1) In the relaxation phase of muscle contraction, the S-1 head of myosin hydrolyzes ATP to ADP and P , but these products remain bound. The resultant ADP-Pi-myosin complex has been energized and is in a so-called high-energy conformation. (5) Myosin-ATP has a low affinity for actin, and actin is thus released. This last step is a key component of relaxation and is dependent upon the binding of ATP to the actin-myosin complex. If intracellular levels of ATP drop (eg, after death), ATP is not available to bind the S-1 head (step 4 above), actin does not dissociate, and relaxation (step 5) does not occur. This is the explanation for rigor mortis, the stiffening of the body that occurs after death. The contraction of muscles from all sources occurs by the general mechanism described above. Muscles from different organisms and from...

Conformational Changes Of Rhodopsin

Other early magnetic resonance experiments focused on analysis of sonicated aqueous suspensions of rhodopsin in lipids and membranes for which rigid or motionally averaged NMR powder pattern spectra were collected.16 Detailed studies of the dynamic properties of the rhodopsin-membrane system by molecular fluctuation sensitive spin-lattice (Tj) relaxation measurements as well as 13C-1H NOE showed small but significant decreases in T1 relaxation times of the rod outer segment (ROS) membranes compared to ROS lipid vesicles.16-18 These results, which were in agreement with EPR results obtained with spin-labeled lipids,19-21 indicated that the average rate of phospholipid segmental motion was reduced four-fold by the presence of rhodopsin for lipids immediately adjacent to the receptor. Moment analysis and spectral subtraction of deuterium (2H) NMR data collected on rhodopsin in deuterated vesicles at low temperatures indicated two discrete lipid pools one comprised of bulk gel lipids and...

Diabetic Neuropathy

Animal models have been used extensively in research in the field of diabetes. Studies of rats made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin (STZ) have provided a wealth of evidence for diabetes-induced changes in autonomic nerves throughout the vasculature and visceral organs. In erectile tissue a similar loss of VIP and neurogenic relaxation has been demonstrated in human male diabetics with impotence and in experimental diabetes (264,297). In the rat proximal colon, an initial increase in NA and VIP is followed by a loss of NA and VIP at a later stage in STZ-induced diabetes (298). Similarly, in human skin from patients with diabetes of different duration, an early increase of VIP in autonomic nerve fibers precedes a later depletion (299). In the rat ileum 8 weeks after induction of diabetes, no VIP release can be detected on electrical field stimulation of myen-teric nerves despite the fact that VIP levels in diabetic tissue are more than twice that of controls (300). Thus, an...

High Field and BOLD Signal Behaviour

Fmri Signals Motor

Between baseline and activated states if high-field strength units are used 34 . As for the magnitude of the field dependence of the BOLD effect, it has been considered to vary from linear to quadratic 34-36 , showing an inhomogeneous spatial distribution, principally depending on the relationship between dimension of voxels and dimension of blood vessels contained in them. Studies on the field dependence of the apparent transverse relaxation rate 36 showed that the BOLD effect is proportional to B0 if the voxels contain large vessels (venules and veins d> 10 im), dropping to less than linear if vessels are larger than voxels. The relationship rises to more than linear in voxels containing a mixture of brain tissue, capillaries and ve-nules with a small diameter (less than voxel dimension), and reaches quadratic behaviour (B02) for voxels containing smaller vessels (capillaries and venules d < 10 im). The biophysical model explaining this complex signal behaviour requires taking...

Clinical Considerations

Rectal Nerve Block

Pelvic relaxation is the weakening or loss of support of the pelvic organs because of damage to the pelvic diaphragm, urogenital diaphragm, transverse cervical ligament, uterosacral ligament, or pubocervical ligament. It may result in cystocele (prolapse of the urinary bladder into the anterior vaginal wall), rectocele (prolapse of the rectum into the posterior vaginal wall), or uterine prolapse (prolapse of the uterus into the vaginal vault). Pelvic relaxation may result from multiple childbirths birth trauma increased intraabdominal pressure because of obesity, heavy lifting, or chronic cough or menopausal loss of muscle tone. Clinical signs include a heavy sensation in the lower abdomen that is exacerbated by heavy lifting or prolonged standing increased

The Structure of Cognitive Therapy Behavioural Techniques Cognitive Techniques and Homework

Table Disfunctional Thoughts Record

The first class of therapeutic approaches focus on the client's behaviour. The rationale is that for some people behaviour monitoring, behavioural activation and behavioural change can lead to substantive gains. For example, people with more severe depression often become withdrawn and inactive, which can feed into and exacerbate depression. They withdraw and then label themselves as 'ineffectual', fuelling the depression. By focussing on this relationship and gradually increasing the person's sense of daily structure and participation in masterful and pleasurable activities the person can take the first steps in combating depression (Beck et al., 1979). Other behavioural strategies include scheduling pleasurable activities, breaking down large tasks (such as finding employment) into more manageable graded tasks (buying a newspaper with job advertisements, preparing a resume ), teaching relaxation skills, desensitising a person regarding feared situations, role playing and...

Pacing On Mechanical Remodeling

Short-term right ventricular apical pacing has been associated with both impaired left ventricular pump function and relaxation. Long-term right ventricular apical pacing may result in permanent impairment of left ventricular function. In 24 young patients (average age 19 years), Tantengco et al. (31) demonstrated that left ventricular function was significantly lower than for age-matched controls after right ventricular apical pacing for 10 years.

Cortical collecting duct cell

(b) Suppression of renin secretion Smooth muscle of arteries, Muscle relaxation with reduction The second major biological action of ANF is its powerful relaxation of preconstricted renal vasculature and large arteries and other vascular beds. This action has been shown to result from ANF interation with the ANPR-A, which results in an increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the vascular smooth muscle. Infusion of ANF into rats or dogs results in an immediate drop in blood pressure, which persists for the duration of the infusion. This response has also been attributed to an induced fall in cardiac output or venous return, but the mechanism of this reponse is not known.

Lower esophageal sphincter

Phrenoesophageal Membrane

Balance between antegrade and retrograde flow, the LES has a complex neurological control mechanism involving both the CNS and peripheral enteric nervous system. LES pressure is modulated by reflexes involving both vagal and sympathetic nerves 6 . Efferent function is mediated through neurons of the myenteric plexus that can effect either LES contraction or relaxation. Synapses between the efferent vagal fibers and the myenteric plexus employ a cholinergic system. The post-ganglionic transmitter effecting contraction is acetylcholine while several studies suggest that NO is the dominant inhibitory nonadrenergic-noncholinergic transmitter with VIP serving some type of modifying role 7 , 8 .

The Behavioristic View

When a response can be generated that is antagonistic to anxiety (e.g., relaxation in the presence of an anxiety-invoking stimulus), then the relationship between the stimulus (the approaching penis) and the anxiety response will diminish. There are two forms of systematic desensitization in vitro and in vivo. In vitro means that the desensitization takes place in a fantasy situation, whereas in vivo means that it takes place in the real situation. Systematic desensitization in vivo is the more commonly used method for the treatment of women with vaginistic complaints. First, the woman learns to relax. Then she learns to gradually accept objects of increasing diameter in her vagina, such as fingers or vaginal rods. She starts with the smallest size and finishes with the largest size that matches the size of the partner's penis in erection. Many therapists employ systematic desensitization (23,25,27,29-33). It is often combined with other techniques, such as muscle exercises...

Myocardial Blood Flow

Subendocardial Plexus

The coronary arterial tree terminates in muscular vessels 60150 m in diameter termed arterioles. The arterioles are the major locus of resistance to blood flow (MBF), and contraction or relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of the arterioles (vasomotion) provides the mechanism for control of the rate of blood flow into the myocardium. The regulatory signals can be classified as having feedback or feed-forward characteristics the final common response to these signals is relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle cells that make up the resistance vessels that control coronary blood flow (Fig. 3). Several major feedback mechanisms resulting from increased cardiomyocyte metabolism (including adenosine, nitric oxide NO , and other less-defined signals) cause opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) on the sarcolemma of smooth muscle cells of the coronary arterioles. Opening of these channels allows potassium to escape from the cytosol of the smooth muscle cells, resulting...

Ginseng And Morphine And Related Opioids

Apart from the inhibitory effect on morphine tolerance and psychic dependence by ginseng extracts and particularly by the extract G115, there is also a marked preventative effect on addiction withdrawal symptoms. This has been demonstrated in morphine-dependent animal experiments but the precise mechanism of action is, as yet, not understood. Certainly the withdrawal symptoms are accompanied by an increase in the dopamine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, a reduction in the acetylcholine level in the brain and decrease in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) release from the brain stem. Dopamine (hydroxytyramine) is a normally inhibitory neurotransmitter produced in neurones in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia of the brain stem and is involved in motor control cAMP is an intracellular hormonal mediator arising within the cells and in its short life controls reactions such as promotion of enzyme activity, alteration of cell permeability, prompting of muscle...

Theoretical Formulations

The standard therapies for GAD, evaluated in clinical trials from 1980 to 2000, have been broadly based on the procedures and principles of cognitive therapy as applied to the appraisal of threat (Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985) and behaviour therapy as applied to reducing muscle tension through relaxation training (Bernstein & Borkovec, 1973 Ost, 1987). These approaches will be familiar to therapists with a basic training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The primary emphasis is on a process of self-regulation in which the sufferer learns to understand and then interrupt his or her particular cycle of anxiety triggers, bodily responses and worries with coping strategies based on either reducing arousal and muscle tension or changing the beliefs, and appraisal processes that underlie worrisome thinking. Clinical and research evidence suggests that confidence in either approach can bring about significant reductions in the severity of GAD but confidence in both is probably...

MRA Image Reformation

The method of reformatting based on 'maximum intensity projection' is known as 'mipping.' The mipping of blood can be done based upon the blood flow characteristics. Flowing blood in MRA techniques has a high intensity. The intensity of a pixel in a slice is compared with that of the corresponding pixels in all the other slices (as in a channel), and the one with maximum intensity is selected. For example, pixel (1, 1) in slice 1 is compared with other pixels (1, 1) of all other slices. For this, an internal threshold is used, below which no pixel in the channel falls. This threshold process is repeated for all the pixels in the slice to connect high intensity dots in space in order to generate an MRA image. Thus MRA image represents the highest intensities (caused by flowing blood) in the imaging volume. A major drawback of this method is that bright structures other than blood may be included in the mipped image i.e. fat, posterior pituitary glands and subacute hemorrhage. This...

Excitation-contraction Coupling Of Cardiac Cells

Relative Refractory Period

Relaxation requires reduction of the internal calcium concentration. ATP-dependent calcium pumps in the sarcoplas-mic reticulum resequester calcium into the lumen of this vesicular system. In myocytes, calcium pumps in the plasma membrane also help reduce cytosolic calcium by pumping calcium into the extracellular space. Furthermore, the sodium-calcium exchanger moves one calcium ion out of the cell at the expense of bringing in three sodium ions. The balance of sodium and potassium is restored through the action of the ATP-dependent Na K-ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase). The use of these ion motive pumps reveals an important energetic consideration For cardiac myocytes, both the contraction and relaxation of the cells require ATP. Fig. 16. Excitation-contraction-coupling in cardiac myocytes. The cascade of events that follow a cardiac action potential resulting in cellular contraction followed by relaxation. See text for details. Fig. 16. Excitation-contraction-coupling in cardiac...

Exogenous Methods Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast

Under normal perfusion conditions, in the presence of an intact blood brain barrier (BBB), the contrast medium remains confined within the vascular network and does not diffuse in the extravascular space. While passing through the cerebral vasculature, a short bolus of contrast material produces local magnetic field inhomo-geneities that lead to a reduction in the transverse relaxation time of the tissue. This susceptibility effect can be recorded by a series of ultra-fast T2*- or T2-weighted sequences using gradient-echo and spin-echo sequences, respectively. The signal intensity-time curves can be converted to concentration-time curves, which allow the calculation of haemodynamic parameters such as blood volume, blood flow and transit time (Fig. 9.2). An alternative to T2- or T2*-sequences are T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequences, which give rise to relaxivity, rather than susceptibility effects. The relaxivity effect of paramagnetic contrast agents results in a shortening...

Clinical Presentation And Imaging Findings

The tumor typically appears as a low-intensity area on T1-weighted images, whereas there is almost always an increase in signal intensity corresponding to an increased relaxation time on T2-weighted images. The area of abnormal signal is usually homogeneous and well defined without evidence of hemorrhage or necrosis 14 . Enhancement after the administration of intravenous gadolinium occurs in between 8 and 15 per cent of cases 15-17 . Usually, the lack of enhancement coupled with the well-differentiated nature of the LGA will result in a hypometabolic or cold fluorodeox-yglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan. Often, but certainly not invariably, when dedifferentiation occurs to a more malignant state, the tumor may appear hypermetabolic or hot on FDG PET scan. This information may be of value in determining a relevant site for biopsy in a patient with a recurrent or progressive LGA, since astro-cytomas tend to behave according to the highest grade of...

Review Of Anger Treatment Outcomes

By contrast, the term Integrative Constituent was used to describe those circumstances where addressing anger, although remaining integrated within broader therapeutic activity, is more clearly delineated. Examples of such an approach can be found within both the psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioural literatures but, as yet, the only systematic outcome evidence that falls into this category comprises 'component' CBT procedures for addressing client anger difficulties. In this regard evidence has been accrued indicating the utility of relaxation procedures (O'Donnell & Worell, 1973), exposure-based procedures (Brondolo, DiGuiseppe & Tafrate, 1997 Grodnitzky & Tafrate, 2000) systematic desen-sitisation (Rimm et al., 1971) and cognitive-based techniques (Dahlen & Deffenbacher, 2000 Tafrate & Kassinove, 1998). It is to be noted that this work has, again, predominantly involved student samples, hence its application to more serious clinical populations cannot be assured.

Drugs In Development And Novel Drug Targets

Contractility and relaxation. a2-Adrenoceptors are known to mediate constriction of blood vessels, and they have been identified as potential targets in the treatment of Raynaud's disease and other forms of peripheral vascular disease, e.g., intermittent claudication. The unwanted consequences of central a2A-adrenoceptor antagonism have so far invalidated this approach targeting of peripheral a2B- and a2C-adreno-ceptors may overcome this problem. Receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, and activation of these receptors is known to cause relaxation of blood vessels. Olcegepant is an antagonist of at least some types of CGRP receptors and is in clinical development for migraine and cluster headaches. Bosentan is currently in limited clinical use as a vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension, but other small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists are now under clinical development for broader therapeutic indications,...

T1 and T2 Relaxometry

Contrast in most human neuroimaging studies is a function of the T1 and T2 relaxation times of the brain tissues. Consequently, regional signal differences in brain images are often caused by differences in the relaxation properties. T1 is the recovery time of the longitudinal magnetization and T2 is the decay constant associated with the transverse magnetization. Both characteristic times are highly sensitive to bulk water of the tissue and tend to increase with water content. Significant changes in both T1 and T2 are observed with early brain maturation (e.g., Miot et al. 1995 Miot-Noirault et al. 1997 Sie et al. 1997 Steen et al. 1997 Paus et al. 2001) and aging (Jernigan et al. 1991 Autti et al. 1994 Salonen et al. 1997). In development, these changes are likely caused by decreased water content and increased water binding and compartmentalization including during premyelination periods when lipids, proteins, and glial cells are increasing. T2 appears to be more sensitive to the...

Neuromuscular Disorders

Sphincter (UES) relaxation, and low lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressures. Cricopharyngeal myotomy or UES dilation may be effective in temporarily improving dysphagia in these patients however, the long-term prognosis is unchanged after intervention (9). Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) comprise a group of neuromuscular disorders with varied clinical presentations, most of which occur early in childhood. Over one-third of patients with SMAs suffer from dysphagia. Parkinson's disease is a progressive degenerative disorder caused by the degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra. The resulting disorder is characterized by rigidity and resting tremor. The rigidity is caused by simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscle groups that are usually coordinated to produce fine muscle movements. The resulting dysphagia is a result of poor bolus transport during the oral phase, early spill into the pharynx, and a prolonged pharyngeal transit time. The...

The Normal Enteric Nervous System

The mature ENS is absolutely unique and different from any other region of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). First, the ENS is independent and can function in the absence of input from the brain or spinal cord 3, 4 . Second, in contrast to the remainder of the PNS, the ENS can mediate reflexes, even when it is isolated from the central nervous system (CNS). This ability of the ENS is often overlooked, even though it has long been known to be true. As the 19th Century turned to the 20th, Bayl-iss and Starling reported that enteric reflexes could be mediated by the local nervous mechanism of the gut 14, 15 . These investigators described what they called the law of the intestine (now known as the peristaltic reflex) in extrinsically denervated loops of dog intestine. This is a reflex, evoked by increased intraluminal pressure, that consists of a wave of oral excitation and anal relaxation that descends in the bowel and is propulsive.

Meditate For Somatoform Disorders

Meditation can benefit people who are ill or overwhelmed by stress. It also promotes well-being in healthy people. In general, people who meditate regularly experience less anxiety and depression. They also report more enjoyment and appreciation of life, as well as better social relationships. Meditation produces a state of deep relaxation and a sense of balance, or equanimity. According to Michael J. Baime in Essentials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, meditation allows one to fully experience intense emotions without losing composure. The consequence of emotional balance is greater insight regarding one's thoughts, feelings, and actions. Insight, in turn, promotes confidence and awareness. Meditation also facilitates a greater sense of calmness, empathy, and acceptance of self and others. Anxiety-reduction techniques Skills taught by a therapist to help an individual overcome anxiety, stress, and tension, and can include relaxation, visualization and imagery, diaphragmatic...

Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome

Biofeedback training has been used in an effort to reduce hypertonicity of the pelvic floor muscles (61). With the aid of a vaginal sensor, the patient is provided with direct visual feedback regarding their level of muscle tension, facilitating muscle training with respect to contraction, relaxation, and the acquisition of voluntary control. After 4 months of training, subjective pain reports decreased an average of 83 , with 52 of the women reporting pain-free intercourse, and 79 of women who were abstaining from intercourse resuming activity posttreatment. However, this study contained a mixed group of women with vulvar pain and likely contained a high proportion of vaginismic women, considering that many participants were not engaging in intercourse at the beginning of the study. The effectiveness of physical therapy, which includes a pelvic floor biofeedback component in addition to soft tissue mobilization and other techniques specific to this treatment, has recently been...

Mechanisms of EGJ dysfunction in GERD

Reflux occurs with either intermittent or constant compromise of the EGJ high-pressure zone. An added element to EGJ competence is EGJ opening and the degree to which the EGJ opens during periods in which the high-pressure zone is compromised. Just as with the upper esophageal sphincter, it has become apparent that sphincter opening is not synonymous with sphincter relaxation. During swallowing, despite being neurally inhibited, the EGJ must open to facilitate the esophago-gastric flow of a swallowed bolus while at the same time intermittently closing to prevent reflux of gastric contents into esophagus. During rest the EGJ must contain gastric juice but also be able to transiently relax and open enough to selectively permit gas venting without allowing reflux of caustic gastric juice. These functions are accomplished by the delicate interplay of the anatomical components and physiological responses of the EGJ. The dominant mechanism protecting against reflux will vary with...

Cognitive Behavioral Approaches

The success of using anxiety reduction techniques for treating female orgasmic disorder is difficult to assess because most studies have used some combination of anxiety reduction, sexual techniques training, sex education, communication training, bibliotherapy, and Kegel exercises, and have not systematically evaluated the independent contributions to treatment outcome. Moreover, even within specific treatment modalities, considerable variation between studies exists. For example, systematic desensitization has been conducted both in vivo and imaginal, has used mainly progressive muscle relaxation but also drugs (83) and hypnotic techniques (84) to induce relaxation, and has varied somewhat in the hierarchical construction of events. Furthermore, the relative contribution of factors such as individual vs. group treatment, patient demographics (age, marital status, education, religion), precise diagnosis and severity of presenting sexual concerns, therapist characteristics (sex,...

Spinal Cord Injury and Decentralization

Human bladders from patients with sacral spinal cord lesions (229). In addition, the response to hypogastric nerve stimulation switches from the normal response of bladder contraction followed by relaxation to one of sustained bladder contraction after preganglionic parasympathetic denervation in cats (226,228). It has been suggested that denervation results in a switch in receptor expression from predominantly (3-adrenoceptors to predominantly a-adrenoceptors (226,227). VIP levels and VIP-containing nerve fibers also increase in the bladder after transec-tion of the pelvic nerves (230).