Temporal methods use the same measure to analyze the same individuals repeatedly (Kenny, 1995), meaning that the measurement occasions can be considered different methods. For example, the mood of an individual can be repeatedly assessed in different situational contexts to estimate his or her tonic mood level. In longitudinal studies, the methods (i.e., situations, occasions) have a temporal order, and methods for longitudinal data analysis must take this into consideration. As a consequence, methods of data analysis that are appropriate for multimethod research in general have to be adapted for temporal analysis by taking the temporal order into account (Khóo, West, Wu, & Kwok, chap. 21, this volume).
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