Following from Campbell and Fiske (1959), the MTMM design is the most widely applied paradigm to study the effects of multiple methods and has been particularly important in self-concept research. Here we have illustrated classic examples of the MTMM design (methods as multiple instruments or multiple raters), but also demonstrated its flexibility with a variety of applications that do not fit the standard MTMM paradigm. These include applications in which there are two trait facets (parallel achievement test scores and self-concept factors) but no method facets, where there are two or more facets of measurement error (time, items) but no multiple trait factors, and analyses that begin with multiple indicators of each trait-method combination. Taken together, these applications demonstrate why the logic underlying the MTMM design is central to the multimethod approach.
CROSS-CULTURAL GENERALIZABILITY: NATIONALITIES AS THE MULTIPLE METHODS
To what extent do psychometric properties of self-concept responses and theoretical predictions from self-concept theory generalize across different cultures and nationalities? Cross-cultural comparisons provide researchers with a valuable, heuristic basis to test the external validity and generalizability of their measures, theories, and models. In their influential overview of cross-cultural research, Segall, Lonner, and Berry (1998) stated that cross-cultural research's three complementary goals were "to transport and test our current psychological knowledge and perspectives by using them in other cultures; to explore and discover new aspects of the phenomenon being studied in local cultural terms; and to integrate what has been learned from these first two approaches in order to generate more nearly universal psychology, one that has panhuman validity" (p. 1102) From this perspective cross-cultural research is clearly an important application of multimethod research in which different cultures and nationalities constitute the multiple methods. Here we illustrate two applications of this cross-cultural approach from our self-concept research, although we also present other applications later in the chapter.
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