Eisenberg et al.

Guthrie et al.

Maszk et al. (1999)

3. Observation

View relationship transactions

Social desirability of participants

May be assessed in an artificial laboratory setting

Lag sequential analysis

Crowell et al. (1988)

4. Physiological-biological methods

Measure psychological processes that individuals are unable to report

Minimal social biases

Time and equipment costs are high

Carryover effects may invalidate data


Casey et al. (1997) Stifteret al. (1989)

5. Experimental methods

More control over variables

Random assignment not always possible

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