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Manipulated Lag + Mean Response Time

FIGURE 24.1. Group means (top panel) and speed-accuracy trade-off functions (bottom panel) for two hypothetical conditions.

can also clearly detect those subjects that ignore our manipulation and treat them and their data appropriately.

The data in the bottom half of Figure 24.1 show what such figures look like. The data here have been fit with a shifted exponential function,

in which A represents asymptotic accuracy, R the rate of approach to the asymptote, I the point at which performance first rises above the floor of chance performance on the task, and t the time point after the onset of the stimulus. One important aspect of such a function is that is can be used to describe behavior for each subject. Whereas an individual mean provides only a scalar value that is some unknown combination of performance and individual-difference characteristics, this function provides estimates of performance across the entire meaningful range of the confounding individual-difference variable. And, by doing so, we can now see that our failure to detect group differences in the top part of the Figure 24.1 owed in large part to the fact that our subjects, by virtue of their inherent laziness and consequent choice of a particularly speedy decision strategy, placed themselves in a range in which it would have been quite difficult to detect an effect of our learning manipulation.

Figure 24.2 displays some actual results that demonstrate how this technique has proven useful in evaluating important theoretical questions in human cognition. In the top half of Figure 24.2 are empirical speed-accuracy functions for the endorsement of studied and unstudied high- and low-frequency words (Hintzman, Caulton, & Curran, 1994). As is commonly found, recognition is superior for low-frequency words in two ways: the rate of correct endorsement for studied items, or hit rate, is higher, and the rate of incorrect endorsement of unstudied items, or false-alarm rate, is lower, thus yielding a mirror effect (Glanzer & Adams, 1990). Most theoretical stances are in agreement about the nature of the difference in hit rate: The presentation of an uncommon word constitutes a distinctive event, and distinctive events are more memorable. However, there are several different extant proposals as to the nature of the difference in false-alarm rate. One suggestion is that the higher false-alarm rate to common words reflects the fact such words enjoy higher baseline levels of familiarity because of the greater number and frequency of exposures to such words, by definition (e.g., Glanzer & Adams, 1985; Hintzman, 1988).

Another suggestion is that recognition decisions are made after two sources of evidence are assessed. First, the word is matched against memory, yielding an overall assessment of mnemonic familiarity. Second, the word is evaluated as to its likely memorability, and recognition standards are set that are commensurate with that assessment (e.g., Benjamin, Bjork, & Hirshman, 1998; Brown, Lewis, & Monk, 1977). That is, after determining how familiar a word is, the subject makes a metamnemonic assessment of how familiar it would be, if the word had been studied. Because subjects know high-frequency words to be less memorable, they set lower standards for such words and therefore endorse unstudied high-frequency words at a higher rate (Benjamin, 2003; cf. Wixted, 1992). Central to this suggestion is the idea that this postretrieval assessment is deliberate and should only be evident if enough decision time has elapsed for the subject to incorporate such knowledge.

As can be seen in Figure 24.2, the difference in false-alarm rate appears in each response period, including the very short ones. This result is inconsistent with the concept of a postretrieval assessment. However, if these data had not been collected across a spectrum of decision times, this conclusion would have been impossible to reach.

Now consider the display in the bottom half of Figure 24.2, which depicts results from a different recognition experiment. In that experiment, subjects studied multiple lists, each of which consisted of words that were semantically associated to a single, unstudied "critical" word (cf. Roediger & McDermott, 1995). At test, the distractor set included words that were unrelated to the themes of the study lists and also the critical unstudied high associate mentioned before. An interesting pattern of false endorsement of the critical foils is evident: The rate first rises and then falls with decision time (Heit, Brockdorff, & Lamberts, 2004). Notably, if one assessed only a limited range of the speed-accuracy function here, one could conclude that false-alarm rate to "critical" items either increases or decreases along that range, depending on where one found oneself on that function (Benjamin, 2001).

This method thus has three major advantages. First, we minimize the risk of individual difference variables colluding in such a way so as to restrict our measurements to a range in which effects are not easily detected. Second, when we reparameter-ize our accuracy data as the terms of the function that we fit them to, we hopefully increase the reliability and validity of our data. I say "hopefully" because such an outcome depends critically on the correctness of the function that we choose to summarize our data. The question of how to evaluate

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