FIGURE 10.2. Examples of And, Or, and Window commands; used primarily to modify multiple-stream state and timed sequential data. Double-headed arrows represent time units (here a second) during which the initial code or new code occurs. A left parenthesis before a code represents the onset second.

This would allow investigators to ask, for example, whether mothers were likely to begin a rhythmic vocalization within 5 seconds of their infants beginning one than at other times, thereby demonstrating reciprocity or matching.

Other modifications are possible. For example, Becker, Buder, Bakeman, Price, and Ward (2003) coded vocalizations of bush baby mothers with their infants (Otolemur garnettii, a small primate). A new code—a short growl bout—was defined that characterized stretches of time when mothers' brief growls occurred with 7 seconds or less between individual maternal growls. This permitted Becker et al. to ask whether infants responded specifically to growl bouts or equally to isolated growls (it was primarily to bouts). We hope that this example, along with the examples in the previous paragraphs, has demonstrated that data modification is both flexible and useful (see also Bakeman, Deckner, & Querea, 2004). Appropriate creation of new codes from existing data can give users more direct and compelling answers to the research questions that led them to collect their data in the first place. Such modification usually matters much more for observational than for other kinds of data, but first data must be represented in a way that facilitates modification, which is why we have emphasized matters of data representation here.

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