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Note. R is an estimate of the contribution of recollection to performance and A is an estimate of the automatic contribution of memory to performance.

Note. R is an estimate of the contribution of recollection to performance and A is an estimate of the automatic contribution of memory to performance.

exclusion of words that were presented in the visually presented (second) list as a function of the attention manipulation. It also shows the values of R and A, as reparameterized by Equations (3) and (4). Evident in those parameters is a very clear effect of attention on R but not A. It is from such results that we can conclude that the automatic effects of memory are relatively impervious to manipulations of attention, but that the deliberative, conscious contribution of recollection is not.

To once again sound the drum that is the theme of this volume, certain conclusions are made possible only by the theoretically motivated combination of multiple measures. Multimethod psychology refers to more than convergent and divergent validity; in each of the examples outlined here, studying individuals under different conditions or in different situations afforded a rich, multifaceted view of their behavior. Just as psychologists include multiple subjects in experiments to be able to generalize across individual differences and to examine effects owing to those differences, multiple methods or experimental circumstances allow the researcher to tease out effects that underlie differences between conditions (as in the final example given earlier) and additionally reduce the risk of being led astray by single oddball conditions that don't generalize well to the naturalistic circumstances that they are intended to simulate.

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