445 x 60 445 x 440

500 500

Bishop, Fienberg, and Holland (1975, p. 386) concluded that these coefficients should only be used for comparing several tables.

Researchers who are interested in general associations between methods can use the X2 value to detect these relations, and moreover, when they compare observed and expected frequencies, they can determine beforehand which categories are more or less associated than expected using the X2 components (see Haberman, 1978). The value corrects for associations by chance and, hence, can best be used to test the significance of associations.

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