Info

for some constructs

Implicit methods

Avoids self-report biases

Relative utility in predicting actual behavior not yet documented

Typical reliabilities

Typical validities

Very high

May require multiple informants to achieve adequate reliability

May require multiple observers to achieve adequate reliability

Moderate

Low to moderate

Low to moderate

High

Moderate to high, depending on correspondence with criterion

Often low

Low to moderate

Moderate to high

Generally high

Often low; depending on the measure, sometimes can't be assessed

Generally low

Moderate when appropriate tests are used

Low to moderate, depending on criterion

Physiological methods

Brain imaging

Identifies underlying biological processes of effects

Identifies underlying biological processes of effects

Requires specialized equipment & software, extensive data cleaning

Expensive, Ps are constrained physically

High

Moderate but depends on task and region of brain

Moderate

Moderate to low

Web-based methods

Inexpensive, easy way to reach geographically diverse samples

Selection bias; lack of control over data collection

Typically high

Method

Directness of inference

Reactivity of method

Ease of measurement

Recent social psychological citations

Comments

Global self-assessment

Informant assessment

Observational methods

Ability tests

Experience sampling

High

High

Varies

High

High

High

Varies

High

Usually high

Very easy

Difficult

Difficult

Very easy

Very hard

Any issue of JPSP, PSPB, JESP, etc.

Gosling et al., 2002; Kurtz & Sherker, 2003; Katz & Joiner, 2002 (Neyer, chap. 4, this volume)

Tiedens & Fragale, 2003; Dovidio et al., 2002; Bollmer et al., 2003

(Bakeman & Gnisci, chap. 10, this volume)

Kickul & Neuman, 2000

(Lubinski, chap. 8, this volume) limited

Mehl & Pennebaker, 2003; Oishi, 2002; Brown & Ryan, 2003

(Stone & Litcher-Kelly, chap. 5, this volume)

The DV of choice among social psychologists, for good reason

Should receive more use than it currently does

Behavior is, after all, the primary DV of interest, so should be considered the gold standard

Relevance and utility to social psychology

Technological advances using beepers and PDAs have made this method even better continued

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