Although the main goal of this chapter is to show the relevance of multimethod assessment for social psychology, we have also tried to broaden the sense of what multimethod research entails in our subdiscipline. One way we have tried to achieve this broader goal is by making a general distinction between multiple methods focused mostly on the independent variable (between-method and within-method replication) and those focused mostly on the dependent variable (multimethod assessment). But these are only rough distinctions and are not meant to force a particular strategy into a Procrustean bed. In fact, the distinctions are somewhat unwieldy and only approximate the range of what could be classified as multimethod. Our main point is that social psychological research can proceed fruitfully in multimethod fashion on a number of distinctive, yet overlapping fronts. Our research may usually take less advantage of expansive multi-method approaches than it should, but most social psychologists realize the benefits derived from being oriented in this direction. We understand that we do better, more cumulative research to the extent that we plan our studies with multiple methods in full view and at least partially applied.
Chapter 2 7
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY: CONSTRUCT VALIDATION WITH MULTIPLE SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND MULTIPLE SETTINGS
This chapter describes the importance of multiple sources of information from multiple settings for the construct validation of clinical psychology measures. We first describe the role of measurement for research in clinical psychology and for clinical judgments about clients. Because the quality of research findings and clinical judgments depend on the validity of measures, we provide an overview of procedures for the development of measures. We then consider in depth how confirmatory factor analysis can be used to model multitrait by multi-source matrices for convergent and discriminant validation of measures. We describe the outcomes that would be supportive (i.e., measures with more trait than source variance) and unsupportive (i.e., measures with more source than trait variance) of construct validity We then review the studies that used these procedures with clinical psychology measures. The findings indicate that many measures contained more source than trait variance. The final section of the chapter argues that the classic Campbell and Fiske multitrait by multimethod matrix can be expanded to include additional types of information (i.e., facets, modes, dimensions, settings, sources, instruments, methods, and occasions of measurement). This expanded measurement matrix is considered to provide a rich framework for the development and validation of measures.
Measurement is important in two areas of clinical psychology. Measurement is first a central component in all aspects of clinical research. Clinical research often involves the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatments, the identification of characteristics of per sons who are more or less likely to benefit from treatments, and the identification of variables that affect the outcome of treatments. Clinical research also involves the description of behavior problems and their associated features and variables associated with their onset, duration, intensity, or time-course (e.g., research on the characteristics and causes of eating disorders, conduct disorders, marital problems). Multimethod assessment (i.e., the measurement of clinical phenomena with various methods) is considered essential for good clinical research.
The second area of clinical psychology where measurement is important involves clinical judgments about clients during assessment and treatment. Clinical psychologists often estimate the chance that a client will harm himself or herself, provide psychiatric diagnoses for clients, and identify a client's most important behavior problems and concerns. Clinical psychologists also make judgments about the causes of a client's behavior problems, a client's behavioral, cognitive, and social environmental strengths, the most appropriate treatment goals for a client, the best treatment procedures to reach these goals, and the best way to evaluate the success of the client's treatment. A particularly important clinical judgment is the clinical case formulation— the integration of multiple judgments for the purpose of planning treatment (Haynes & O'Brien, 2000). Multimethod assessment is also considered important for good clinical judgments.
The validity of clinical research findings and clinical judgments depends on the validity of measures used in research and clinical activities.
Research findings and clinical judgments are usually drawn from measures derived from interviews, questionnaires, standardized tests, behavioral observations, self-monitoring, and electrophysiological and biomedical instruments. Invalid measures may lead us to overestimate, underestimate, or fail to identify treatment effects and causal relations in both research and clinical applications. Because the quality of the measures affects the quality of clinical research and clinical decisions about clients, specific, reliable, and valid measures are mandatory for the advancement of clinical psychology.
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