Classical Measures And Techniques

Looking back on several decades of concern about reactivity in psychological research as well as related fields (e.g., school education) allows us to now talk of classical methods for avoiding or reducing reactivity. In various contributions we find classifications closely related to the one originally presented by Webb et al. (1966). Shaughnessy and Zechmeister (1990) as well as Schweigert (1998) basically differentiated between physical traces (use traces and products) and archival data (analyses of communication and trends and assessing the effects of natural treatments). Bloom and Fischer (1982) differentiated the latter in public versus private and consider simple observations as an additional category. In the following section, we will briefly describe the classical methods discussed in the literature. As previously mentioned and in accordance with Bungard and Luck's (1997) position, we generally consider methods to be more or less (non)reac-tive instead of differentiating between reactive versus nonreactive.

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