## Assessing The Adequacy Of Formal Models Of Cognition

In each of the examples outlined in the previous section, I have attempted to illustrate how the theoretical gain obtained from the combination of multiple measures was greater than the sum of the parts (the individual measures). Lurking within this apparently free lunch is a cost, however. In each case, we needed to specify a theory about the relationships among our measures before we could combine them. The cost of combining measures is measured in the assumptions that we make in specifying that theory. In particular, if our theory is wrong, the parameters that we derive from its application may be meaningless or even misleading.

In addition, more accurate theories are often derived from a careful evaluation of the specific points at which prior attempts fell short. Thus, it is critically important to subject such theories to evaluation and cull the herd appropriately. This section briefly reviews recent advances in and discussions of our understanding of how such evaluations can be conducted.

Probably the most common application of model testing involves the logic of goodness-of-fit statistical tests. Such tests assess the extent to which a specified model can handle a particular set of data. One familiar application of such a procedure involves the comparison of obtained frequencies of events to a set of predicted frequencies. The predictions come from a model that can make any number of assumptions about the relationships between the event types to one another (often, that they are independent). The sum of squared differences between the expected and obtained frequencies is the building block for a test statistic that can be compared to an appropriate chi-square distribution.

A more complex model's ability to account for a pattern of data can be summarized with a similar measure, such as Root Mean Squared Error or Percent Variance Accounted For. Such measures provide a good basis for ruling out a model: If no combination of parameters within a model can allow it to predict a result that is commonly obtained, then something about that model is clearly wrong. To draw on an earlier discussion, if 2-transformed ROC functions for recognition memory were typically curvilinear, then we would want to reconsider the assumption that the evidence distributions are Gaussian in form.

Unfortunately, unlike theories in physics, psychological theories are typically quite flexibleâ€”so much so, in fact, that there is probably a greater utility in using tools that rule out models not on what they fail to predict, but rather how much they can predict for which there is no evidence (Roberts & Pashler, 2000). If our theory of the form of the zROC was so general that it could not rule out any functional structure, we should be considerably less impressed by its ability to account for the correct linear form. Thus, more appropriate model-testing mechanisms emphasize not only the ability of the model to account for a pattern of data, but also its ability to do so simply, efficiently, and without undue flexibility. These mechanisms deal with such concerns by incorporating factors such as the number of free parameters (Akaike Information Criterion [Akaike, 1973]; Bayesian Information Criterion [Schwartz, 1978]) or even the number of free parameters and the range of function forms that the model can take (Bayesian Model Selection [Kass & Raftery, 1995]; Minimum Description Length [Hansen & Yu, 2001]). These approaches have clear advantages over simple goodness-of-fit tests, on which more complex models have an inherent fitting advantage simply by virtue of their ability to overfit data that in psychological experiments typically include a large amount of sampling error (Pitt & Myung, 2002).