Unfortunately, the main points of the original Campbell and Fiske article are distorted nearly as often as they are heeded. In I/O psychology, Campbell and Fiske's arguments are often cited in the empirical literature but frequently in contexts that are but pallid reflections of the points of the MTMM work, distorted by the twin mirrors of exigencies of field research and difficulties of developing truly independent methods of assessing related traits. Real-world restrictions on research designs in organizations create four characteristics that describe much I/O research:
1. Many studies rely primarily on self-reports.
2. Theory and measurement instruments are often intertwined.
3. Methods dictate and limit theory.
These four characteristics are not meant to describe all research in the field, nor are they meant to describe the shortcomings of researchers working in the area. Rather, they are intended to be a description of the evolved state of much research in organizational environments.
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