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Despite the FDA's historical opposition to multiplicity adjustment for tumor tests, there has been movement toward acknowledging the multiplicity problem. The so-called Haseman Rule (Haseman, 1983) has been used routinely by FDA. With this rule, a rare tumor type is flagged as significant when p < .05, and a common tumor type is flagged as significant when p < .01. This method was originally developed as a multiplicity adjustment procedure since its FWE is approximately .08 over all four...

Hierarchical and Empirical Bayes Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment

Gauri Datta, Malay Ghosh and Lance A. Waller The study of geographical variability in mortality rates for diseases such as cancer has received a great deal of attention from statisticians in recent years. A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to the production of disease atlases, i.e., collections of maps in which the geographical distribution of incidence of a specific disease is presented across a country or region. Typically, the study area is partitioned into smaller spatial...

Nonparametrics in Bioenvironmental and Public Health Statistics

Some of the major interdisciplinary issues pertaining to the consolidated bioenvironment and public health disciplines have been addressed in Sen (2000), and statistical perspectives in this context have also been appraised. It may be noted that in bioenvironmental and public health studies, the statistical triplet planning, modeling and analysis schemes play a fundamental role because of various extraneous factors, the setups may be quite different from the conventional experimental ones, and...

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We also define the set of association parameters of various orders for the pair ij by 0y, and make a basic assumption A 0 0, V 1 lt i lt j lt p . 6.22 Drawing a parallel with the univariate model, for the marginal probabilities n l lt i lt j lt F, k l, ,p, 6.23 where the a are all nonnegative and t In this way, we reduce the number of linearly independent a . to p t 1 as it should be . The MANOCOVA paired comparison models basically address to the homogeneity of these a in a well defined...

Generalized Linear Models for Independent and Dependent Responses

Preisser In many areas of applied research, such as those utilizing longitudinal data analysis Diggle et al., 1994 or spatial data analysis Cressie, 1991 , correlation arises so that not all observations are independent. Independent groups of data that have correlation among their members are called clusters. An extreme case is when the data comprise a single cluster of a stochastic sequence of correlated data, such as a single time series Diggle, 1990 ....

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Where j k - is a convenient score function and c denotes a v -consistcnl estimator of the standard deviation associated to the response at the kXh. observation instant. Singer and Sen 1986 obtain the asymptotic distribution of both types of estimators under standard regularity conditions, propose computational algorithms and discuss the choice of the transformation proposed by Potthoff and Roy as well. Nonparametric methods for longitudinal data have been employed along two different...

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The model of Bailey 1992 which led to Eq. 15 suggests m 4 as optimal and sets Pj f for all infection stages while Bailey 1994 , as in Eq. 17 , suggests m 6 is optimal and sets and flj T, j 2, , m, where for the present discussion the latent period and low-activity stages are being ignored. The total time spent in the m infection stages overall equates to the incubation period. The waiting time in each stage is that of an exponential distribution. Thus, the total time is distributed as the sum...

Preface

As we march into the current millennium with great expectation and aspiration, we are also confronted with an enormous task of preserving our bioenvironment with a view to promote and protect the quality of our life. Environmental hazards stemming from pollution and toxicity, resulting from our improper handling of environmental resources, have posed serious and often life-threatening problems to our ecosystem that governs Mankind. Devastating environmental disasters are occurring more often...

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Later, Bailey 1994 as an aid to estimating incidence developed a five-stage process where the last two stages can be further split depending on whether or not a given individual progressed to a delayed AIDS diagnosis, and then to death by either a death certificate route or a physician's report route see Section 4. 4. Right-shift models Shifts to non-adjacent stages The models presented in Section 3 are uniquely characterized by the fact that any transitions from stage j are to the immediately...