During the 1990s, considerable attention was provided to the translation and adaptation of tests and assessment devices in the disciplines of testing and psychometrics and in the literature associated with these fields. The International Testing Commission developed guidelines that were shared in various draft stages (e.g., Hambleton, 1994, 1999; van de Vijver & Leung, 1997; the resulting guidelines were a major accomplishment for testing and for cross-cultural psychology, and they are provided as the appendix to this chapter). Seminal papers on test translation (Berry, 1980; Bracken & Barona, 1991; Brislin, 1970, 1980, 1986; Butcher & Pancheri, 1976; Geisinger, 1994; Hambleton, 1994; Lonner, 1979; Werner & Campbell, 1970) appeared and helped individuals faced with the conversion of an instrument from one language and culture to another. The following sections note some of the issues to be faced regarding language and culture, and then provide a brief description of the approaches to test translation.
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