Test Bias Involving Groups and Individuals

Bias may influence the scores of individuals, as well as groups, on personality and ability tests. Therefore, researchers can and should investigate both of these possible sources of bias. An overarching statistical method called the general linear model permits this approach by allowing both group and individual to be analyzed as independent variables. In addition, item characteristics, motivation, and other nonintellec-tual variables (Reynolds, Lowe, etal., 1999; Sternberg, 1980; Wechsler, 1975) admit of analysis through recoding, categorization, and similar expedients.

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