Cultural Test Bias As An Explanation

The bias explanation of score differences has led to the cultural test bias hypothesis (CTBH Brown et al., 1999 Reynolds, 1982a, 1982b Reynolds & Brown, 1984b). According to the CTBH, differences in mean performance for members of different ethnic groups do not reflect real differences among groups but are artifacts of tests or of the measurement process. This approach holds that ability tests contain systematic error occurring as a function of group membership or other nominal variables...

References

K. (1985). Automated interpretation of neuropsychological test data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 790-802. Ambady, N., & Rosenthal, R. (1992). Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 256-274. Anthony, N. (1968). The use of facts and cues in clinical judgments from interviews. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 37-39. Arkes, H. R. (1981). Impediments to...

Collecting Assessment Information

The process of collecting assessment information begins with a formulation of the purposes that the assessment is intended to serve. A clear sense of why an assessment is being conducted helps examiners select tests and other sources of information that will provide an adequate basis for arriving at useful conclusions and recommendations. Additionally helpful in planning the data collection process is attention to several examiner, respondent, and data management issues that influence the...

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive biases, cognitive heuristics, and memory processes can exert a major negative impact on judgment and decision-making strategies. Cognitive biases are preconceptions or beliefs that can negatively influence clinical judgment. Cognitive heuristics are simple rules that describe how clinicians, and other people, make judgments and treatment decisions. Reliance on cognitive heuristics can be efficient because they are simple and they allow us to make judgments and decisions quickly and...

Critique Of Clinical Judgment

A strength of clinical judgment is that mental health professionals can make use of a wide range of information. Automated assessment programs and present-day statistical prediction rules generally make use of limited information, for example, results from a single psychological test. In contrast, mental health professionals can make judgments after reviewing all of the information that is normally available in clinical practice. As noted earlier, in seven of the eight studies that found...

Harringtons Conclusions

Harrington (1968a, 1968b), unlike such authors as Mercer (1979) and Helms (1992), emphasized the proportionate but small numbers of minority examinees in norming samples. Their low representation, Harrington argued, made it impossible for minorities to exert any influence on the results of a test. Harrington devised an innovative experimental test of this proposal. The researcher (Harrington, 1975, 1976) used six genetically distinct strains of rats to represent ethnicities. He then composed...

Validity Research On Computerized Narrative Reports

Interpretive reports generated by computer-based psychological assessment systems need to have demonstrated validity even if the instruments on which the interpretations are based are supported by research literature. Computerized outputs are typically one step removed from the test index-validity data relationships from the original test therefore, it is important to demonstrate that the inferences included in the computerized report are reliable and valid in the settings where they are used....

Contributors

Department of Psychiatry University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan Department of Psychology Kent State University Kent, Ohio School of Education College of William and Mary Williamsburg, Virginia Department of Educational Psychology University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Department of Psychology University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota Riverside Publishing Itasca, Illinois Department of Psychology University of...

Test Score Fairness

From the inception of psychological testing, problems with racial, ethnic, and gender bias have been apparent. As early as 1911, Alfred Binet Binet amp Simon, 1911 1916 was aware that a failure to represent diverse classes of socioeconomic status would affect normative performance on intelligence tests. He deleted classes of items that related more to quality of education than to mental faculties. Early editions of the Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler intelligence scales were standardized on...