The Examinerexaminee Relationship

Contrary findings notwithstanding, many psychological professionals continue to assert that White examiners impede the test performance of minority group members (Sattler, 1988). Sattler and Gwynne (1982) reviewed 27 published studies on the effects of examiners' race on the test scores of children and youth on a wide range of cognitive tests. Participants were students in preschool through Grade 12, most from urban areas throughout the United States. Tests included the Wechsler Scales the...

Explaining Group Differences

Among researchers, the issue of cultural bias stems largely from well-documented findings, now seen in more than 100 years of research, that members of different ethnic groups have different levels and patterns of performance on many prominent cognitive ability tests. Intelligence batteries have generated some of the most influential and provocative of these findings (Elliot, 1987 Gutkin & Reynolds, 1981 Reynolds, Chastain, Kaufman, & McLean, 1987 Spitz, 1986). In many countries...

For Screening And Diagnosis 121 Diagnosis 122

Diagnosis-Specific Instruments 123 Personality Measures and Symptom Surveys 123 PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AS A TOOL FOR TREATMENT PLANNING 124 The Benefits of Psychological Assessment for Treatment Planning 124 PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AS A TREATMENT INTERVENTION 126 What Is Therapeutic Assessment 126 The Therapeutic Assessment Process 126 Empirical Support for Therapeutic Assessment 127 TREATMENT MONITORING 127 Monitoring Change 128 Other Uses for Patient Profiling 128 The Effects of Providing...

Teaching An Advanced Course In Personalityassessment

What follows is a description of an advanced course in personality assessment much like the one taught by the first author (Handler). We will present this model to the reader for consideration because it is based on data culled from work on creative reasoning processes and is supported by research. In addition, we have added the use of integration approaches based on the use of metaphor, as well as an approach with which to facilitate empathic attunement with the patient. To this experiential...

Bias and Base Rates

As elaborated in Reynolds and Ramsay's chapter in the present volume, bias occurs in the utilization of assessment information when examiners allow preconceived notions and previously held beliefs to influence how they view the implications of their data. Assessment bias may arise either inadvertently, from attitudes of which examiners are unaware, or consciously, as purposeful intent on their part. Whether inadvertent or intentional, assessment bias takes the form of expectations that affect...

Calibration

The process of item and scale calibration dates back to the earliest attempts to measure temperature. Early in the seventeenth century, there was no method to quantify heat and cold except through subjective judgment. Galileo and others experimented with devices that expanded air in glass as heat increased use of liquid in glass to measure temperature was developed in the 1630s. Some two dozen temperature scales were available for use in Europe in the seventeenth century, and each scientist had...

Teaching Students How To Construct An Assessment Battery

Important sources of information will of course come from an interview with the patient and possibly with members of his or her family. Important history data and observations from these contacts form a significant core of data, enriched, perhaps, by information derived from other case records and from referral sources. In our clinical setting patients take the SCL-90-R before the intake interview. This self-report instrument allows the interviewer to note those physical and emotional symptoms...

Translation And Cultural Testing

The findings reviewed above do not apply to translations of tests. Use of a test in a new linguistic culture requires that it be redeveloped from the start. One reason for the early success of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was that Terman reconceptualized it for the United States, reexamining Binet's theory of intelligence, writing and testing new items, and renorming the scales (Reynolds, Lowe, et al., 1999). Terman's work was an exception to a rule of simple translation of the Binet...

Path Modeling and Predictive Bias

Keith and Reynolds (1990 see also Ramsay, 1997) have suggested path analysis as a means of assessing predictive bias. Figure 4.1 shows one of their models. Each arrow represents a path, and each oblong or rectangle represents a variable. Figure 4.1 A path model showing predictive bias. The arrow from Group Membership to Intelligence Test Score represents bias. Figure 4.1 A path model showing predictive bias. The arrow from Group Membership to Intelligence Test Score represents bias. The...

Equivalence Of Computeradministered Tests And Traditional Methods

Several authorities have raised questions about the equivalence of computer-based assessment methods and traditional psychological testing procedures. Hofer and Green (1985), for example, pointed out that there are several conditions related to computerized test administration that could produce noncom-parable results. Some people might be uncomfortable with computers and feel awkward dealing with them this would make the task of taking tests on a computer different from standard testing...

Volume Preface

The title of this volume, Assessment Psychology, was deliberately chosen to make the point that the assessment activities of psychologists constitute a legitimate and important subdiscipline within psychology. The methods and techniques developed by assessment pioneers were central in establishing a professional role for psychologists in schools, hospitals, and other settings. Although interest in psychological assessment has waxed and waned over the years and various assessment procedures and...

Recency of Sampling

How old can norms be and still remain accurate Evidence from the last two decades suggests that norms from measures of cognitive ability and behavioral adjustment are susceptible to becoming soft or stale (i.e., test consumers should use older norms with caution). Use of outdated normative samples introduces systematic error into the diagnostic process and may negatively influence decision-making, such as by denying services (e.g., for mentally handicapping conditions) to sizable numbers of...

Statistical Prediction

One can expect statistical prediction rules to be more accurate than automated assessment programs and clinical judges. After all, statistical prediction rules are usually based on accurate feedback. That is, when deriving statistical prediction rules, accurate criterion scores are usually obtained. Put another way (Garb, 2000a), In general, statistical prediction rules will do well because they make use of the inductive method. A statistical prediction rule will do well to the extent that one...

Assessment Approaches And Personality Theory

In the past those with behavioral and cognitive approaches typically used self-report measures in their assessments, whereas those with psychodynamic orientations tended to rely on pro-jective tests. Since those old days, during which the two sides crossed swords on a regular basis in the literature and in the halls of academia, we now seem more enlightened. We now tend to use each other's tools, but in a more flexible manner. For example, although psychoanalytically oriented clinicians use the...

Improving Assessment Results Through Modification Of Administration Procedures

Students learning assessment are curious about ways to improve the accuracy of their interpretations, but they nevertheless adhere strictly to standardized approaches to administration, even when, in some situations, these approaches result in a distortion of findings. They argue long, hard, and sometimes persuasively that it is wrong to modify standardized procedures, for any reason. However, we believe that at certain times changing standardized instructions will often yield data that are a...

Psychological Assessment As A Tool For Treatment Planning

Psychological assessment can provide information that can greatly facilitate and enhance the planning of a specific therapeutic intervention for the individual patient. It is through the implementation of a tailored treatment plan that the patient's chances of problem resolution are maximized. The importance of treatment planning has received significant attention during recent years. The reasons for this recognition include concerted efforts to make psychotherapy more efficient and cost...

Teaching An Introductory Course In Personality Assessment

Given that students have had an adequate course in psycho-metrics, the next typical step in training is an introductory course in assessment, in which they learn the many details of test administration, scoring, and initial interpretation. Assessment is taught quite differently in doctoral programs throughout the country. As mentioned previously, in some programs testing is actually taught, but the course is labeled assessment. In some programs this course is taught entirely as a survey course...

Psychological Assessment As A Treatment Intervention

The use of psychological assessment as an adjunct to or means of therapeutic intervention in and of itself has received more than passing attention during the past several years (e.g., Butcher, 1990 Clair & Prendergast, 1994). Therapeutic assessment with the MMPI-2 has received particular attention primarily through the work of Finn and his associates (Finn, 1996a, 1996b Finn & Martin, 1997 Finn & Tonsager, 1992). Finn's approach appears to be applicable with instruments or batteries...

The Politics And Misunderstandings In Personalityassessment

For many years there has been very active debate, and sometimes even animosity and expressions of derision, between those who preferred a more objective approach to personality assessment (read self-report and MMPI) and those who preferred a more subjective approach (read projective tests and Rorschach). This schism was fueled by researchers and teachers of assessment. Each group disparaged the other's instruments, viewing them as irrelevant at best and essentially useless, while championing...

Gerald P Koocher And Celiane M Reycasserly

IN THE BEGINNING 166 Who Is the Client 166 Informed Consent 167 Test User Competence 168 Planning the Evaluation 170 Selection of Instruments 170 Adequacy of Instruments 170 Appropriate Assessment in a Multicultural Society 170 Getting Around Language Barriers 171 What's in a Norm 171 Bases for Assessment 172 CONDUCTING THE EVALUATION 172 Conduct of the Assessment 172 Data Collection and Report Preparation 173 Automated Test Scoring and Interpretation 173 AFTER THE EVALUATION 173 Feedback...

Cultural Test Bias As An Explanation

The bias explanation of score differences has led to the cultural test bias hypothesis (CTBH Brown et al., 1999 Reynolds, 1982a, 1982b Reynolds & Brown, 1984b). According to the CTBH, differences in mean performance for members of different ethnic groups do not reflect real differences among groups but are artifacts of tests or of the measurement process. This approach holds that ability tests contain systematic error occurring as a function of group membership or other nominal variables...

Bias In Postdiction From Projective Test

K. (1985). Automated interpretation of neuropsychological test data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 790-802. Ambady, N., & Rosenthal, R. (1992). Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 256-274. Anthony, N. (1968). The use of facts and cues in clinical judgments from interviews. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 37-39. Arkes, H. R. (1981). Impediments to...

Basis of Inferences and Impressions

The interpretation of assessment data involves four sets of alternatives with respect to how assessors go about drawing inferences and forming impressions about what these data indicate. Interpretations can be based on either empirical or conceptual approaches to decision making they can be guided either by statistically based decision rules or by clinical judgment they can emphasize either nomothetic or idio-graphic characteristics of respondents and they can include more or less reliance on...

Collecting Assessment Information

The process of collecting assessment information begins with a formulation of the purposes that the assessment is intended to serve. A clear sense of why an assessment is being conducted helps examiners select tests and other sources of information that will provide an adequate basis for arriving at useful conclusions and recommendations. Additionally helpful in planning the data collection process is attention to several examiner, respondent, and data management issues that influence the...

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive biases, cognitive heuristics, and memory processes can exert a major negative impact on judgment and decision-making strategies. Cognitive biases are preconceptions or beliefs that can negatively influence clinical judgment. Cognitive heuristics are simple rules that describe how clinicians, and other people, make judgments and treatment decisions. Reliance on cognitive heuristics can be efficient because they are simple and they allow us to make judgments and decisions quickly and...

Critique Of Clinical Judgment

A strength of clinical judgment is that mental health professionals can make use of a wide range of information. Automated assessment programs and present-day statistical prediction rules generally make use of limited information, for example, results from a single psychological test. In contrast, mental health professionals can make judgments after reviewing all of the information that is normally available in clinical practice. As noted earlier, in seven of the eight studies that found...

Harringtons Conclusions

Harrington (1968a, 1968b), unlike such authors as Mercer (1979) and Helms (1992), emphasized the proportionate but small numbers of minority examinees in norming samples. Their low representation, Harrington argued, made it impossible for minorities to exert any influence on the results of a test. Harrington devised an innovative experimental test of this proposal. The researcher (Harrington, 1975, 1976) used six genetically distinct strains of rats to represent ethnicities. He then composed...

Validity Research On Computerized Narrative Reports

Interpretive reports generated by computer-based psychological assessment systems need to have demonstrated validity even if the instruments on which the interpretations are based are supported by research literature. Computerized outputs are typically one step removed from the test index-validity data relationships from the original test therefore, it is important to demonstrate that the inferences included in the computerized report are reliable and valid in the settings where they are used....

Contributors

Department of Psychiatry University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario, Canada Department of Psychiatry Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan Department of Psychology Kent State University Kent, Ohio School of Education College of William and Mary Williamsburg, Virginia Department of Educational Psychology University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin Department of Psychology University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota Riverside Publishing Itasca, Illinois Department of Psychology University of...

References

R., Gigandet, J., amp Harris, E. 1979 . MMPI diagnosis of black psychiatric patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 85-87. Alley, G., amp Foster, C. 1978 . Nondiscriminatory testing of minority and exceptional children. Focus on Exceptional Children, 9, 1-14. Anastasi, A. 1988 . Psychological testing 6th ed. . New York MacMillan. Arnold, B., Montgomery, G., Castaneda, I., amp Longoria, R. 1994 . Acculturation and performance of Hispanics on selected Halstead-Reitan...

Test Score Fairness

From the inception of psychological testing, problems with racial, ethnic, and gender bias have been apparent. As early as 1911, Alfred Binet Binet amp Simon, 1911 1916 was aware that a failure to represent diverse classes of socioeconomic status would affect normative performance on intelligence tests. He deleted classes of items that related more to quality of education than to mental faculties. Early editions of the Stanford-Binet and the Wechsler intelligence scales were standardized on...