Prostate Cancer

Stop Fat Storage

Lose Weight By Controlling The Fat Storage Hormone

Get Instant Access

The expansion of prostate cancer screening efforts in the United States during the mid 1980s,

Table 1.1 Examples of Candidate Genes in Five Hormone-Related Cancers

Cancer Site

Proliferative Hormone

Endometrium Ovary Prostate Testis

Estrogen

Progesterone

Estrogen

FSH, progesterone, inhibin B Testosterone (dihydrotestosterone) LH, estrogen?

CYP17, CYP19, HSD17B1, ER

CYP17, PR, COMT

CYP17, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, ER, PR

FSH, FSHR, HSD17B1, PR, INHB

CYP17, HSD17B3, HSD17B4, HSD17B5, SRD5A2, AR

LH, LHR, CYP17

CYP17, cytochrome P-450 17,20 lyase; CYP19, aromatase; HSD17B1, 17^-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; FSH, FSHR, follicle-stimulating hormone and receptor; INHB, inhibin B; 5RD5A2, 5-a-reductase type II; LH, LHR, luteinizing hormone and receptor.

CYP17, cytochrome P-450 17,20 lyase; CYP19, aromatase; HSD17B1, 17^-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; FSH, FSHR, follicle-stimulating hormone and receptor; INHB, inhibin B; 5RD5A2, 5-a-reductase type II; LH, LHR, luteinizing hormone and receptor.

with emphasis on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay, resulted in large increases in prostate cancer incidence through 1992 for white males and through 1993 for African-American males. Prostate cancer incidence increased 183% for white males and 136% for African-American males from 1973 to 1992, with the largest increases occurring from approximately 1988 through 1992. Rates from 1992 to 1998 show a reversal of this trend as incidence began to decrease in both white (—25.4%) and African-American (—9.9%) men (Table 1.2). The trend for prostate cancer in African-American and white men is similar, with the exception that it is delayed roughly 2 years in African Americans (Fig. 1.3), and the rate is approximately 1.5 times higher in African-American than white men.

While the value of the PSA assay in identifying cases of asymptomatic prostate cancer and preventing mortality through the detection of early-stage disease has been unclear, it now appears that prostate cancer mortality is beginning to decline. Following the introduction of the PSA assay in the United States, mortality rates associated with prostate cancer increased by 2.9% per year between 1987 and 1991, stabilized from 1991 to 1994, and then declined 4.7% per year from 1995 to 1998.29 While it remains too early to be certain, this initial decline in prostate cancer mortality suggests that screening efforts may be effective at decreasing deaths.30 Although it is generally accepted that detection of cancer at an early stage results in better survival than detection at a late stage, it is not clear what percent of screened men with early-stage prostate cancer would actually progress to symptomatic disease. A study of untreated stage T1a prostate cancer reported that only 15% of the men enrolled pro gressed to clinical disease.31 Any long-term benefits of PSA screening on prostate cancer mortality are not yet apparent. In the next decades, prostate cancer mortality can be expected to fall to the extent that PSA screening effectively identifies the population at high risk of developing symptomatic disease and assuming that the majority of such men are effectively treated.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment