Veins are blood vessels that take blood to the heart.
In each side of the neck, three veins come together. Medially located in the neck is the large internal jugular vein. Laterally located in the neck is the smaller external jugular vein. These two veins join with the subclavian vein to form the innominate vein. The two innominate veins come together to form the superior vena cava.
Each subclavian vein is formed by the union of two veins: the cephalic vein and the axillary vein. The cephalic vein is located laterally in the upper arm.
Accessory cephalic vein Anterior tibial vein Axillary vein Basilic vein Brachial vein Cephalic vein
Common iliac vein Dorsal venous arch External iliac vein External jugular vein Femoral vein Great saphenous vein
Hepatic vein Inferior vena cava Innominate vein Internal iliac vein Internal jugular vein
Left spermatic or ovarian vein Median cubital vein Popliteal vein Posterior tibial vein Renal vein
Right spermatic or ovarian vein Subclavian vein Superior vena cava
The axillary vein is located in the axilla of the arm. The axillary vein is formed by the union of the basilic vein, which lies on the medial side of the arm, and by the brachial vein, which lies along the posterior surface of the arm. Between the basilic vein and cephalic vein, in the elbow area, is the median cubital vein. Emptying into the cephalic vein in the elbow area is the accessory cephalic vein, which lies on the lateral aspect of the forearm.
The inferior vena cava is formed primarily by the union of the two common iliac veins in the lower lumbar/sacral area. Two veins form the common iliac vein: a smaller internal iliac vein and a larger external iliac vein. The internal iliac vein basically corresponds to the internal iliac artery. The external iliac vein receives blood from the lower leg. Emptying into the external iliac vein are two veins: the great saphenous vein and the femoral vein. The great saphenous vein, which is the longest vein in the body, begins at the medial end of the dorsal venous arch of the foot and travels up the medial aspect of the leg. The femoral vein runs up the posterior aspect of the thigh. The femoral vein is an upward continuation of the popliteal vein, which is located behind the knee. The popliteal vein receives blood from the anterior tibial vein and the posterior tibial vein.
In the abdomen, the inferior vena cava receives blood from the hepatic veins, which drain blood from the liver. The renal veins are inferior to the hepatic veins and drain the kidneys. The left renal vein also receives blood from the left spermatic or ovarian vein. The right spermatic or ovarian vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava. The spermatic or ovarian veins carry blood away from the testes and ovaries, in males and females respectively.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.