The Nervous System

21. Nervous Tissue 152

22. Spinal Cord and Reflexes 157

23. Brain 165

24. The Eye and Visual tests 176

25. The Ear 187


26. Hematology: 194

Total White Blood Cell Count 194

Total Red Blood Cell Count 197

Blood Typing 198

Hemoglobin Determination 201

Hematocrit 203

Coagulation Time 204

27. The Heart 207

28. Arteries and Veins 216

29. Fetal Circulation 226

30. The Lymphatic System 230


31. Respiratory Organs 234

32. Spirometry 241


33. Urinary Organs 245

34. Urinalysis 253


35. Meiosis 260

36. The Reproductive System

Male 264

Female 267


37. Genetics 274

Forward This book has been written with learning in mind. There are several ways to use this book.

First the student should read it. Second, he or she should fill in the label lines of the figures in pencil. This can be done with reference to the lab text as well as to the course textbook. At this time the student should also make use of the models and bones available in the laboratory. Finally, the figures have been printed in black and white so that the enterprising student can color the drawings with colored pencils.

With diligence and hard work the fascinating world of anatomy and physiology can be successfully mastered.

Dedication We dedicate this book to our students at Amarillo College, both present and past. To our wives, for their support and patience while we have wrestled with this endeavor, thank you.


Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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