Muscles of the Lower

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There are three large muscles in the lower leg. The gastrocnemius (pronounced gastronemius) and the soleus lie posteriorly and make up the calf of the leg. The soleus is deep to the gastrocnemius. Both muscles attach to the calcaneus through the Achilles' tendon.

On the anterior surface is the tibialis anterior.

There are many other flexors and extensors just as there were in the arm, but we will not study them.

Exercise 19.2

Correctly label the muscles in Figure 191. Exercise 19.3

Identify the muscles on the model of the human leg.

RIGHT

LEFT

LEFT

Serratus Ventralis Cat With Labels

Figure 19.1 Muscles of the Leg

Achilles' tendon Adductor longus Adductor magnus Biceps femoris Gracilis (X2) Gastrocnemius (X2) Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Rectus femoris Sartorius Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Soleus Tensor fascia lata Tibialis anterior Vastus lateralis (X2) Vastus medialis

MUSCLES OF THE CAT

TRUNK AND SHOULDER Deltoid Group:

Acromiodeltoid Clavodeltoid (clavobrachialis) Spinodeltoid External oblique Internal oblique Latissimus dorsi Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Rectus abdominis Serratus ventralis Teres major Transverse abdominis Trapezius Group:

Acromiotrapezius

Clavotrapezius

Spinotrapezius

Optional:

External intercostals

Infraspinatus

Internal intercostals

Pectoantebrachialis

Rhomboid

Rhomboid capitis

Supraspinatus

Subscapularis

Xiphihumeralis

NECK AND HEAD

Digastric

Masseter

Mylohyoid

Sternohyoid

Sternomastoid

Sternothyroid Thyrohyoid

FORELEG Biceps brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Triceps brachii

Extensor carpi radialis Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum communis Extensor digitorum lateralis Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Pronator teres

MEDIAL SIDE OF LEG

Achilles's tendon (not a muscle) Pectineus

Adductor femoris Vastus intermedius

Adductor longus

Gastrocnemius

Gracilis

Rectus femoris

Sartorius

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

Soleus

Tensor fascia lata Tibialis ventralis Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis

LATERAL SIDE OF LEG

Achilles' tendon (not a muscle) Caudofemoralis

Biceps femoris

Gastrocnemius

Gluteus medius

Gluteus maximus

Sartorius

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

Soleus

Tensor fascia lata Vastus lateralis

MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN OTHER THAN THOSE ON THE CAT

TRUNK AND SHOULDERS

Deltoid, (only one on the human)

Pectoralis minor is deep to pectoralis major

Rhomboid major

Rhomboid minor

(There is no rhomboid capitis on the human.) Serratus anterior Teres minor

Trapezius (only one on the human) NECK AND HEAD

Buccinator Optional:

Depressor labii inferioris Omohyoid

Frontalis

Galea aponeurotica(not a muscle)

Lateral pterygoid

Levator labii superioris

Medial pterygoid

Occipitalis

Orbicularis oculi

Orbicularis oris

Platysma

Sternocleidomastoid Temporalis

Triangularis (lateral third is sometimes called the zygomaticus minor) Zygomaticus (major)

Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor digitorum communis Extensor digiti minimi Flexor digitorum superficialis

Adductor magnus

CHAPTER

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