Examine and sketch a smear of an ox spinal cord as seen with a microscope: Identify the following: axon, dendrite, and perikaryon.
Figure 21.1 Sensory and Motor Neurons
Axon (X2) Axon terminal branch (X2) Connector neuron Dendrite (X2) Motor neuron Muscle fiber Myelin sheath (X2) Neurofibril Neurolemma (X2) Nissl body Node of Ranvier (X2) Nucleus of Schwann cell (X2) Nucleus of the perikaryon (X2) Perikaryon (X2) Receptor (X2) Sensory neuron Spinal ganglion (dorsal root ganglion) Synapse
Figure 22.1 Posterior View of the Spinal Cord
Anterior column of the white matter Anterior horn of the gray matter Anterior median fissure Anterior root Arachnoid mater Central canal Dura mater Epidural space Gray commissure Lateral column of the white matter Lateral horn of the gray matter Meninges Pia mater Posterior column of the white matter Posterior horn of the gray matter Posterior median sulcus Posterior root Spinal ganglion (dorsal root ganglion) Spinal nerve Subarachnoid space Subdural space
Babinski sign. To perform this reflex test; using the metal end of the hammer; lightly stimulate the outer margin of the sole of the foot. The big toe will extend and there may or may not be fanning of the other toes. This will occur normally in children under 1 1/2 years of age. The normal response after 1 1/2 years of age is the plantar reflex (negative Babinski) which results in a curling under of the all the toes, which may be accompanied by a slight turning in and flexion of the anterior part of the foot.
Triceps Reflex. To perform this reflex test; have your lab partner flex his/her arm at the elbow and then hold his/her flexed arm with their opposite arm across his/her abdomen. Strike the triceps brachii tendon just above the elbow with the pointed end of the hammer. This reflex results in extension of the arm.
Study the model of the arm. Identify the following nerves on the model: axillary nerve, median nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, radial nerve, and ulnar nerve.
Study the model of the leg. Identify the following nerves on the model: common peroneal nerve, femoral nerve, and sciatic nerve.
Study the model of the cross section of the spinal cord. Identify the following structures on the model: anterior root, anterior column of the white matter, anterior horn of the gray matter, anterior median fissure, arachnoid mater, central canal, dura mater, lateral column of the white matter, lateral horn of the gray matter, meninges, pia mater, posterior column of the white matter, posterior horn of the gray matter, posterior median sulcus, posterior root, spinal nerve, spinal ganglion (dorsal root ganglion), subarachnoid space, and subdural space.
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