The anterior cavities of the body are lined with membranes called serous membranes (Figs. 1.6, 1.7). These secrete serous fluid. The membranes and the fluid provide a smooth, lubricated surface for the viscera. There are four serous membranes: the pericardium around the heart, the peritoneum around most of the abdomino-pelvic organs, and the two pleurae (sing. - pleura), one around each lung. Each serous membrane is folded twice around the internal organs so that there appears to be two membranes instead of one. Figure 1.8 illustrates how this is possible. A potential space exists between the two layers. The potential space around the heart is named the pericardial cavity. The potential space around a lung is a pleural cavity and the potential space around the abdominal viscera is the peritoneal cavity. The layer of each serous membrane closest to the viscera is the visceral layer, and the layer of the membrane closest to the wall of the body is the parietal layer.
Label the figures with the correct words from the list below each drawing.
Figure 1.5 Body Cavities
Parietal layer Visceral layer
From the list below fill in the word which best completes each sentence. Each word may be used more than once or not at all.
5. __The thoracic cavity is (5) to the abdominopelvic cavity.
8. __The umbilicus (navel) is on the (8) surface of the body.
11. __The palms are on the (11) surface of the body, while the knuckles are on the posterior surface.
anterior deep distal inferior lateral medial posterior proximal superficial superior
16. _ Which section divides the body into upper and lower portions?
17. _ A student cuts a brain into two equal, right and left, portions. What kind of section has she made?
18. —„_ If you cut the brain into right and left sections which were not equal then the section would be (18) .
Which section would divide an organ into anterior and posterior portions?
In which of the nine abdominopelvic regions does the gallbladder lie? Look in your textbook for a picture of the gallbladder.
In which of the nine regions would you find the urinary bladder?
In which of the nine regions would you usually find the proximal end of the appendix?
The stomach lies in the (23) quadrant.
The liver is in the (24) quadrant.
The distal end of the descending colon is in the (25) quadrant.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.