The location of organs which lie in the abdomen can be described using either the names of four quadrants (Figure 1.4A) or nine abdominal regions (Figure 1.4B). The four quadrants are named the upper tight, lower right, upper left, and lower left quadrants. Remember that the right side of a body in anatomical position is on your left!
The nine abdominal surface areas are named as follows. The umbilical is located in the central region where the navel lies. Superior to this is the epigastric (epi = Gr. upon; gaster = Gr. belly) and below this is the hypogastric (hypo = Gr. under). The upper lateral regions are the right and left hypochondriacs (hypo = Gr. under; chondros Gr. = cartilage [of ribs]). (The Greeks thought that disease originated in this region, thus a person with many diseases was a "hypochondriac".) Inferior to the hypochondriac regions, lateral to the umbilicus region, are the two lumbar regions. Inferior to the lumbar regions are the right and left iliac regions. Remember that in anatomical position the right of a body facing you is on your left.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.