Histology

Central Vein Small Intestines

The wall of the alimentary canal is composed of four layers of tissue. The mucosa is a mucous membrane which lines the lumen or hole in the canal. The submucosa consists of connective tissue which binds the mucosa to the third layer, the muscularis. In the mouth, pharynx, and upper esophagus the muscularis is partly skeletal muscle. In the rest of the gastrointestinal tract the muscularis is composed of smooth muscle tissue. The muscularis of the stomach is composed of three layers of muscle...

Muscles of the Upper

Begin with the muscles on the medial side. Note the presence of two large wide surface muscles. The lateral muscle is the sartorius, the medial muscle is the gracilis. On a human these two muscles are relatively narrow and do not hide the underlying muscles as they do in the cat. Furthermore the sartorius is an anterior muscle in the human. Remove the gracilis and sartorius from the hip on one side to expose the deeper muscles. Deep to the sartorius are the lateral tensor fascia lata muscle...

Fundamentals

Cell Structure and Connective (other than 6. The 7. Osseous 8. The Skeletal 9. The Axial Skeleton The 10. The Axial Skeleton The Vertebral Column 72 11. The Appendicular 13. Muscle Tissue and the Neuromuscular Junction 98 14. Body 15. Cat Dissection Skin 16. Muscles of the Trunk and 17. Head and Neck 18. Arm 19. Leg

Muscles of the Brachium Upper

The large muscle on the anterior surface of the upper arm is the biceps brachii. This muscle has two origins, thus its name biceps. The function of the biceps brachii is to flex the foreleg. In the cat the pectoantebrachialis extends from the sternum across the pectoralis major and the biceps brachii to end on the ulna. The pectoantebrachialis has no homologue in humans as was discussed in chapter sixteen. Deep to the pectoantebrachialis is the brachialis. The antagonist of the biceps brachii...

Neck Muscles

Many of the muscles of the neck are named for their sites of origin and insertion. Beginning at the sternum locate the first of these muscles, the sternomastoid which begins at the sternum and ends at the mastoid process of the temporal bone. This muscle is homologous to the sternocleidomastoid of humans which originates on both the sternum and the clavicle. Moving toward the head from the sternomastoid find the sternohyoid, then the mylohyoid, and finally the digastric. Lateral to the...

Shoulder Muscles

The cat has three shoulder muscles, the deltoid group, homologous to the one deltoid muscle of the human. The three deltoid muscles of the cat are the clavodeltoid, acromiodeltoid, and the spinodeltoid. The clavodeltoid inserts on the proximal end of the ulna of the cat. None of the fibers of the human deltoid muscle insert on the ulna. The clavodeltoid joins with the clavotrapezius. The clavodeltoid is also called the clavobrachialis. The acromiodeltoid is a small muscle lying between the...

Ventral Thoracic Muscles

There are two major deep muscles to find in the ventral thoracic region. The serratus ventralis of the cat is homologous to the serratus anterior in the human. This muscle has a number of divisions coming from the ribs. Between the serratus anterior and the scapula is subscapu-laris. This muscle lies on the medial ventral surface of the scapula. Deep to the serratus anterior are the external and internal intercostals. As their name implies, the intercostal muscles are between the ribs and the...

The Urinary System

The urinary system functions to cleanse the blood of wastes and to insure a proper balance of electrolytes and water in the blood plasma. The primary organs of the urinary system are the two kidneys. They are bean-shaped and located retroperi-toneally, i.e., behind the peritoneum (see chapter 20). Each kidney receives blood through a renal artery. Blood leaves the kidney through the renal vein. The blood vessels enter and leave the kidney through a depression termed the hilus. The outer fibrous...

The Cranial Nerves

There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves that originate from the brain. The cranial nerves are given a number which indicates the order in which they arise from the brain (cranial nerve I is anterior most and cranial nerve XII is posterior most). Each cranial nerve is also given a Figure 23.4 Frontal Section of the Brain Figure 23.4 Frontal Section of the Brain Corpus callosum Fornix Gray matter Hypothalamus Insula Lateral ventricle Longitudinal cerebral fissure Pituitary gland Thalamus Third...

Interphase

Kangaroo Organelles

Interphase is not a stage of mitosis. Interphase is the time a nucleus spends between mitoses (plural of mitosis). During this time the DNA of the nucleus is replicated in preparation for the next mitosis. Examine the models of mitosis. Be sure that you can identify the phase of mitosis represented by each model and that you can place the models in correct sequence. Examine prepared slides of whitefish blastulae. Each slide contains more than one section through the blastula. Start with low...

Body Sections

To view internal organs and understand their anatomy it is often helpful to cut or section them. There are three primary ways that an organ or the body can be cut to view its internal structure (Figure 1.3). A sagittal section is a cut which divides the body or organ into right and left portions. A special kind of sagittal section is a cut which passes through the imaginary midline of the body or organ. This cut is termed a midsagittal section. A frontal section is one which divides the...

Abo Typing

On one end of a clean microscope slide place a drop of anti-A serum and mark the corner of the slide with an A. On the other end of the slide place a drop of anti-B serum and mark the corner of the slide with a B. 2. Scrub a finger with alcohol Stick the finger with a sterile lancet. Immediately after using the lancet, place it in the bio-hazard container. Any disposable object contaminated with blood should be placed into the bio-hazard container. 3. Touch your finger, that has a large drop of...

Muscular Tissue

Micrographs Skeletal Muscle Label

Muscular and nervous tissues are able to transmit an electrochemical impulse down their cell membranes. These cells are excitable. This property sets them apart from other human tissues. In this chapter we will concentrate on muscular tissue and the junction between nervous and muscular tissue. Chapter twenty-one deals more fully with nervous tissue. In addition to being excitable, muscle cells are contractile and elastic. That is they can shorten and then return to their original shape. The...

Internal Anatomy Of The

Cure Neuropathy Seven Days

A transverse section through the middle of the eyeball shows three layers. The outermost layer is the sclera. It is white in color and consist of dense fibrous connective tissue. The sclera covers the entire aspect of the eye except the anterior pigmented portion of the eye, the iris. Covering the iris is a transparent, nonvascular fibrous coat called the cornea. The middle layer of the eye is the choroid. The choroid is pigmented and contains numerous blood vessels. Anteriorly, the choroid...

Blood Flow Through the Heart

Deoxygenated blood is returned to the heart from the arms and head by a large vein called the superior vena cava. Deoxygenated blood is returned to the heart from the legs and trunk by a large vein called the inferior vena cava. The blood empties into a chamber called the right atrium. Upon contraction of the right atrium, blood flows over a valve called the tricuspid valve. This valve consists of three cusps or flaps. Attached to the inferior aspect of the tricuspid valve are fine tendon-like...

Mn Typing

Take a third clean microscope slide and place a drop of anti-M serum on one end of the slide and mark the comer of the slide with a M. On the other end of the slide place a drop of anti-N serum and mark the corner of the slide with a N. 2. Touch your finger, that has a large drop of blood on the end of it, to the drop of anti-M serum. Wipe your finger with the alcohol ball and dry with a cotton ball Stir the anti-M and blood mixture with a toothpick. 3. Touch your finger, that has a large drop...

The Digestive System

The purpose of the organs of the digestive system is to take in food, break it down into small particles which can be absorbed into the blood, and eliminate waste. The core of the system is the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) which is a tube extending from the oral cavity (mouth) to the anus. The alimentary canal is composed of the oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. Accessory organs, including the teeth, salivary...

The

Ear Round Window Covering

As you read and using your textbook as a guide, label Figure 25.1. The ear is divided into three parts the external ear, the middle ear, and the inner ear. The external ear consists of two parts the auricle (or pinna) and the external auditory canal. The auricle (or pinna) is a triangular shaped appendage consisting of skin and elastic cartilage attached to the lateral aspect of the head. The external auditory canal is a tube about 2.5 centimeters long that extends from the auricle to the...

Info

For each of the following descriptions write in the word from the list which best describes the action. Each word may be used more than once or not at all. There is of course only one best answer. 3. __looking up at a flying bird 5. __bending the toes toward the knee 8. __returning that arm medially 9. __clenching the hand into a fist 12. __flexing the forearm to show off your muscles 13. __bending over to touch your toes 15. __movement of the radius around the ulna

Ophthalmoscope

An ophthalmoscope is used to view the fundus or interior of the eye. To turn on the ophthalmoscope, depress the red button and turn the black ring. Do not use an intense light when looking into your lab partner's eye. Set the diopter window to read 0. Your lab partner will need to look straight ahead without blinking. Hold the ophthalmoscope next to your eye so that you can see through the viewing aperture. While looking through the viewing aperture, move from the lateral side of your lab...

Dorsal Muscles

In cats there are three muscles on each side of the dorsal thorax the clavotrapezius, acromiotrapezius, and spinotrapezius. In humans these three muscles are represented by one muscle, the trapezius. The clavotrapezius is the most cephalad of the group in the cat. This muscle joins with the clavodeltoid. The acromiotrapezius lies superficial to the scapula. The spinotrapezius is a triangular muscle extending caudally down the vertebral column. There is one large muscle on each side of the lower...

Coronary Circulation

Coronary circulation is responsible for the distribution of oxygenated blood to the myocardium (cardiac muscle). Originating from the aorta just past the aortic semilunar valve are the openings to the coronary arteries. One of these openings leads to the right coronary artery. The right coronary artery has two main branches the posterior interventricular artery, which supplies the posterior walls of the two ventricles of the heart, and the marginal artery, which supplies the right lateral...

Abdominal Divisions

The location of organs which lie in the abdomen can be described using either the names of four quadrants (Figure 1.4A) or nine abdominal regions (Figure 1.4B). The four quadrants are named the upper tight, lower right, upper left, and lower left quadrants. Remember that the right side of a body in anatomical position is on your left The nine abdominal surface areas are named as follows. The umbilical is located in the central region where the navel lies. Superior to this is the epigastric (epi...

Body Movements

The action of muscles results in a wide variety of body movements. Knowledge of these movements is essential to an understanding of the skeletal muscles. As you read the following text, perform the various motions yourself and then label the diagrams in Figure 14.1. Flexion, Extension, and Hyperextension. In general when two bones are moved closer together from the anatomical position, the motion is flexion. Returning to the anatomical position requires extension. Hyperextension is over...

Rh TYPING

Take a second clean microscope slide and place a drop ofanti-Rh serum on the slide. 2. Touch your finger that has a large drop of blood on the end of it, to the drop ofanti-Rh serum. Wipe your finger with the alcohol ball and dry with a cotton ball. Stir the anti-Rh and blood mixture with a clean toothpick. 3. Place the microscope slide on the slide warming box. Rock the box gently and observe the slide for clumping. If the blood clumps in the anti-Rh serum within two minutes, you have Rh...

Articulations

Synovial Joint5

An articulation is a joint, a place where bones or bones and cartilage come together. There are three types of joints based on the amount of movement they allow synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, and diarthrotic. Note that these types refer to the physiology of the joints. Synarthrotic joints are immovable because the bones are held tightly together with fibrous connective tissue or cartilage. There are three types of synarthroses. Sutures exist between bones of the skull and are held together with...

Ribs

There are twelve pair of ribs corresponding to the twelve thoracic vertebrae. The ribs join the thoracic vertebrae at the facets and demifacets. The demifacets are half facets found on the bodies of some vertebrae. Two demifacets form a facet when the bodies of the vertebrae are put together. The ribs curve posteriorly away from the bodies, join the facets on the transverse processes, and then curve toward the front of the body. Like the vertebrae the ribs are numbered beginning with the...

The Nervous System

The Eye and Visual 25. The Total White Blood Cell Total Red Blood Cell Blood Hemoglobin Determination 201 Coagulation Time 27. The 28. Arteries and 29. Fetal 30. The Lymphatic 31. Respiratory 33. Urinary Forward This book has been written with learning in mind. There are several ways to use this book. First the student should read it. Second, he or she should fill in the label lines of the figures in pencil. This can be done with reference to the lab text as...

Abdominal Muscles

There are four muscles of the abdominal wall of the cat and of the human. Over these muscles are broad flat tendons, known as aponeuroses (sing. - aponeurosis). The outermost muscle is the external oblique. Note the direction of the fasciculi in this muscle. The fasciculi are oblique to the trunk. Deep to the external oblique is the internal oblique. The fasciculi of the internal oblique run almost perpendicular to the fasciculi of the external oblique. The long segmented muscle running from...

Hemoglobin Determination

Each red blood cell contains millions of molecules of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is necessary for the transport of oxygen to the cells of the various tissues of the body. Inadequate hemoglobin or insufficient numbers of red blood cells results in a condition known as anemia. The hemoglobin content of the blood is expressed in grams per 100 milliliters (ml) of blood. The range of values for a female is 12 to 16 grams per 100 milliliters of blood. The range of values for a male is 13 to 17 grams per...

Mitosis

Before they can divide however, the nucleus must divide so that each daughter cell will have the correct instructions (genes) to carry out its function. Division of the nucleus in somatic (body) cells is called mitosis. Division of the cell itself is called cytokinesis. Mitosis must occur before cytokinesis can occur, but cytokinesis does not have to occur after mitosis. For instance, some cells undergo mitosis but not cytokinesis and thus end up with more...

Muscles of the Face

Label the muscles of Figure 17.2 as you read. There are many muscles in the face. We will not concern ourselves with these muscles on the cat, but only on the human. Underlying the scalp are the frontalis and the occipitalis muscles. These muscles are named for the bones which lie under them. The two muscles are connected by a broad flat tendon, the galea aponeurotica. The frontalis raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead, while the occipitalis pulls the scalp posteriorly. There are three...

Extrinsic Eye Muscles

Images Extrensic Eye Muscles

The upper eyelid is more movable than the lower eyelid. The upper eyelid is elevated by the superior levator palpebrae muscle. On the superior aspect of the orbit of the eye is the superior rectus muscle. On the inferior aspect of the orbit of the eye is the inferior rectus muscle. These two muscles move the eye straight up and down. On the lateral aspect of the orbit of the eye is the lateral rectus muscle. On the medial aspect of the orbit of the eye is the medial rectus muscle. These two...

Neurons

The neuron serves as the basic anatomical and physiological unit of the nervous system. It consists of the perikaryon or cell body and contains such structures as the nucleus, Nissl bodies, neurofibrils, lysosomes, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus. A mature neuron does not contain a mitotic apparatus. The Nissl bodies are masses of rough endoplasmic reticula and are involved in protein synthesis. The neurofibrils are hollow microtubules that are involved in nerve impulse conduction, support...

Microscopy

A microscope allows you to observe objects which are too small to be seen with the naked eye. To maximize your laboratory experience in the study of cells and tissues you must master the use of a microscope. Here are a few rules which will protect the microscopes from damage 1. ALWAYS USE TWO HANDS TO CARRY THE MICROSCOPE. ONE HAND SHOULD BE ON THE BASE AND ONE HAND ON THE ARM (SEE PARTS OF THE MICROSCOPE BELOW). 2. NEVER TOUCH THE LENSES OF THE MICROSCOPE WITH ANYTHING EXCEPT THE LENS PAPER...

Arteries

Ivc Left Common Iliac Vein

Arteries are blood vessels that take blood away from the heart. The largest artery, the aorta arises from the left ventricle of the heart. The first portion is known as the ascending aorta since it travels upward. The ascending aorta curves to the left. This curved portion is known as the aortic arch. The aortic arch curves downward to form the descending aorta. Arising from the aortic arch are three arteries the innominate artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery....

Facial Bones

Mandibular Notch Skull Labeling Anatomy

The rest of the skull is composed of the fourteen facial bones. These are the two nasal, the two lacrimal, the two maxillae, the two zygomatic, the vomer, the two inferior nasal conchae, the two palatine, and the only movable bone of the skull, the mandible. One way to learn these bones is to consider how they form the nose and orbits of the eyes. The nasal bones make up the bridge of the nose. They are best seen in a frontal view of the skull. Lateral to the nasal are processes extending...

Terminology

Human anatomy is the study of the structure of the human body and of its various parts. Physiology is the study of the function of those parts. A complete understanding of anatomy requires knowledge of physiology, and a comprehension of physiology, requires knowledge of anatomy. Scientific and medical terminology has been developed to accurately explain the location and relationship of the parts of the body. A thorough understanding of these terms, is necessary for a clear comprehension of the...

Epithelial Tissues

Epithelial tissues are characterized by tightly packed cells with little or no intercellular material. Epithelial tissues are always attached to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane (Figure 5.1) which acts like glue. Epithelial tissues cover the body and line the cavities of the body. Additionally, epithelial tissues form the secretory portions of glands. There are eight types of epithelial tissues. These types can be determined microscopically by first noting how many layers of...

The Integument

Indentify Merocrine Gland

Tissues are organized in the body to form organs and systems. The integumentary system is composed of the skin (integument), nails, hairs, glands, and associated muscles and neurons (nerve cells). The integument can be divided into two layers, the dermis (dermis Gr. skin) and epidermis (epi Gr. upon). The dermis is composed of connective tissue containing blood vessels, neurons, and glands. The superficial 20 of the dermis is called the papillary layer because of the bumps or papillae which...

Meiosis

Meiosis is a special form of nuclear division which occurs only in the ovaries and testes. This form of division results in daughter cells with only half of the normal number of chromosomes they are haploid. These daughter cells are ova (sing. - ovum) (eggs) and sperm. With the union of sperm and ovum at fertilization, the full number of chromosomes (diploid) is reestablished in the new individual. Without meiosis, union of sperm and ovum would produce a new individual with twice as many...

Relative Positions

Anatomical Terms For Body Parts

Descriptions of the location of one part of the body in relation to another part of the body utilize terms of relative position. All of these terms assume that the body is in a standard position called the anatomical position. This posture of the body assumes that the body is facing the viewer, arms and legs down, and palms forward (Figure 1.1). Regardless of the actual position of the body and its parts, anatomical terminology is used as if the body were in anatomical position. Note in...

Gross Anatomy

Pancreatic Duct Alimentary Canal

Using the models and your textbook identify and label all of the organs and structures of the digestive system in Figures 20.1, 20.2, and 203. The oral cavity has as its walls the cheeks, for its roof the anterior hard palate and posterior soft palate, and for its floor muscles of the throat and neck. Hanging from the posterior border of the soft palate is the uvula. When food is taken into the oral cavity it is broken into smaller particles by the action of the teeth and tongue (mechanical...

The Brain And Cranial Nerves

Midsagittal Section The Skull

The brain is divided into four major areas the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the brain stem, and the diencephalon. The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons varolii, and medulla oblongata. The midbrain is further divided into the cerebral peduncle, corpora quadrigemina, and aqueduct of Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct). The diencephalon region includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, intermediate mass, third ventricle, and fornix. The brain is covered by the same three meninges as the spinal cord the...

Types Of Neurons

Neurons may be classified structurally based on the number of processes extending from the perikaryon or they may be classified functionally based on the direction the nerve impulse is carried. The three types of structural neurons are multipolar neurons, bipolar neurons, and unipolar neurons. Multipolar neurons have many dendrites and one main axon. Bipolar neurons will have only one axon and only one dendrite. Unipolar neurons consist of a cell body and one process which is usually referred...

Figure Of Renal System Of Female

Renal Fascia Around Kidney

The primary sex organs of the male are the two testes (sing. - testis), sometimes referred to as testicles. The testes are enclosed in an external pouch, the scrotum. Lying over the superior and posterior surfaces of a testis is an elongated organ, the epididymis, where sperm are stored. During ejaculation (ejection of the sperm) the sperm are propelled from the epididymis through the vas deferens. The vas deferens, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle make up the...

Muscles of the Lower

Serratus Ventralis Cat With Labels

There are three large muscles in the lower leg. The gastrocnemius (pronounced gastronemius) and the soleus lie posteriorly and make up the calf of the leg. The soleus is deep to the gastrocnemius. Both muscles attach to the calcaneus through the Achilles' tendon. On the anterior surface is the tibialis anterior. There are many other flexors and extensors just as there were in the arm, but we will not study them. Correctly label the muscles in Figure 191. Exercise 19.3 Identify the muscles on...

The Skeletal Plan

Muscles That Attach The Coxae

The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. These bones are arranged in two groups the axial skeleton which is composed of the central bones of the body (skull, hyoid, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column) and the appendicular skeleton which contains the bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and of the arms and legs. All bones can be grouped according to their shape long, short, flat, and irregular, or according to their location su-tural and sesamoid. Sutural bones are located between the...

Cell Structure

Generalized Human Cell Diagram

Your body is made up of billions of individual living structures called cells. All cells are different, but most cells have certain common structures called organelles. We will study the anatomy of these structures in this chapter. More detail on the anatomy and physiology is given in your textbook. Figure 3-1 shows a generalized human cell and its basic parts. Using your textbook as a guide, fill in the labels on the figure. Examine the models of the cell. Be able to identify these parts on...

Body Cavities

Lower Left Abdominal Mass

All of the internal organs (viscera) are located within body cavities (Figure 1.5). The two major cavities are the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity. The dorsal cavity is divided into the cranial cavity containing the brain and the spinal cavity containing the spinal cord. The ventral cavity is divided into the thoracic cavity, superior to the diaphragm, and the abdominopelvic cavity, inferior to the diaphragm. The thoracic cavity is further divided into the pleural cavities, which contain...

Figure 331 Urinary System

How Identify Red Blood Cells Urine

Adrenal gland Descending aorta Left spermatic vein Opening of ureter Renal artery Renal vein Right kidney Trigone Ureter Urethra Urinary bladder Calyx Capsule Column Cortex Hilus Papilla Pelvis Pyramid Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Fluid collected in Bowman's capsule passes sequentially through the proximal convoluted tubule, the descending limb of Henle's loop, the ascending limb of Henle's loop, and into the distal convoluted tubule. The convoluted tubules and loop of Henle are surrounded by...

Female

Male Sex Gland

Figure 36.3 illustrates the external reproductive organs of the female. The mons pubis is the anterior mound superficial to the symphysis pubis. Two folds of skin, the lateral labia majora, and the medial labia minora, surround the vaginal orifice and the urethral orifice. The urethral orifice is anterior to the vaginal. The vaginal orifice may be partially covered by a thin membrane termed the hymen. Between the urethral orifice and the mons pubis is the clitoris. Most of the reproductive...

Paranasal Sinuses

Labeling Facial Bones

Five bones of the skull, the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and two maxillae, contain paranasal sinuses which are paired cavities lined with mucous membranes and connected to the nasal cavity. These cavities lighten the bones of the skull and serve to provide resonance when we speak or sing. Locate the paranasal sinuses in the bones of the disarticulated skull You will not be able to see the frontal sinuses. Label the sinuses on Figure 9.7. Ethmoidal air cells (sinuses) Frontal sinus Maxillary...

Vertebral Column Sternum And Rib Cage

Spinal Column Bone Names

The last of the bones of the axial skeleton is the horseshoe shaped hyoid. This bone is unique in that it does not articulate with any other bone. It is located inferior to the mandible, and provides a floor of support for the tongue. Atlas Axis C7 Cervical curve Coccyx Facet Intervertebral foramen Lumbar curve L4 Sacral curve Sacrum Thoracic curve Label Figure 10.3, comparing the figure to the laboratory specimens. Take careful note of the attachments of the ribs to the thoracic vertebrae and...

The Ventricles Of The Brain And Cerebrospinal Fluid

The brain has four cavities called ventricles. The first and second ventricles are referred to as the lateral ventricles and are located in the cerebral hemispheres. A midline structure, the septum pellucidum, which is a thin membrane, separates the two lateral ventricles. The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle by way of a small oval opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle communicates with the fourth ventricle by way of the aqueduct of Sylvius. The fourth...

The Cranium

Zygomatic Arch For Singing

The portion of the skull which encloses the brain is the cranium. There are eight cranial bones frontal, two parietals, occipital, two temporals, ethmoid, and sphenoid. They are all held together with sutures. The frontal bone forms the anterior portion of the cranium, including the ridges above the eyebrows, and the superior portion of the orbit or eye socket. The supraorbital foramina can be seen above the orbits. The frontal is attached to the two parietals at the coronal suture corona L....

Osseous Tissue

In chapter five you were introduced to osseous or bone tissue. There are two kinds of bone, compact and cancellous. These two types occupy different regions of bones, have different functions, and are histologically distinct. Compact osseous tissue makes up the strong outer portion of bones. This type of bone is composed of tightly packed cylindrical structures called osteons osteon Gr. bone . Each osteon is composed of concentric rings of mineral called lamellae surrounding a central canal....

Cat Dissection Skin Removal

Objective Dissection

The muscles of the cat are very similar in location, name, and function to those in the human body. We willstudy the cat muscles to better understand human musculature. Laboratory cats are preserved with a mixture of alcohol, phenol, and formaldehyde. These preservatives may upset your nose and eyes, but they are necessary if your cat is to be preserved from the growth of fungi and bacteria. The preservatives also eliminate any germs the cats may have been carrying. You may protect your hands...

Hematocrit

The hematocrit is a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in the blood. Like the hemoglobin determination, the hematocrit may also be used to determine if an individual is anemic. The normal range of values for a female is 36 to 46 . The normal range of values for a male is 38 to 50 . If the hematocrit of an individual is 45 , this indicates that 45 of his whole blood is red cells and 55 is plasma. Heparinized anti-coagulant capillary tube 1. Scrub a finger with alcohol. Stick...

Anatomy And Physiology

Anatomy And Physiology

ROBERT BAUMAN, JR., PH.D STEVE DUTTON HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, LABORATORY TEXTBOOK ROBERT BAUMAN, JR., PH.D. STEVE DUTTON Published by Whittier Publications Inc. Lido Beach N.Y. 11561 Copyright 1991, 1996 by Robert Bauman Jr. and Steve Dutton. All rights reserved. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, eletronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the...

Dihybrid Problems

Two traits being followed from one generation to the next. You will still use the Punnett square, only each egg or sperm will have alleles for two different genes and the square will have sixteen boxes instead of four. 4. In horses, black color B dominates chestnut color b . The trotting gait T dominates the pacing gait t . A cross is made between a horse homozygous for black color and the pacing gait, and a horse which is homozygous for both chestnut color and trotting gait. List the probable...

Spirometry

Exercise And Vital Capacity

The measurement of lung capacity is known as spirometry. Figure 32.1 shows a Propper spirometer used to make such measurement. There are a number of terms used in describing various volumes of air during breathing Tidal volume - the normal amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath. Average 500 ml Expiratory reserve volume - the amount of air which can be expelled beyond the tidal volume i.e. beyond normal expiration . Average 1,200 ml Inspiratory reserve volume -...

Histological Study Of Spinal Cord

Examine and sketch the cross section of the spinal cord as seen with a microscope. Use low power. Identify the following central canal, gray commissure, gray matter, spinal ganglion, and white matter. 1. _ The covering of the brain and spinal cord that is 5. _ Name the two grooves that almost divide the spinal cord 7. _ The root of the spinal cord that conducts motor informa 8. _ Where specifically within the vertebral column does the spinal cord cease to be a solid structure 9. _ From what...

Masticatory Muscles

Sternoldomastoid Phtot Humans

There are five major muscles for mastication, chewing, on each side of the head. The primary muscle for elevation of the mandible is the masseter. The temporalis lying over the temporal bone acts synergistically with the masseter. Another muscle working with the masseter to elevate the mandible is the medial pterygoid. The medial pterygoid is medial to the ramus of the mandible, and so cannot be seen in Figure 17.2. Depression of the mandible is greatly assisted by gravity and there is only one...

Genetics

Genetics is the study of inheritance. Inheritance involves the transfer of information from parents to offspring. This information is in the form of genes which are coded segments of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA . DNA is found in all nuclei and is organized into chromosomes. With one exception, which will be mentioned later, human beings have two complete sets of genes. We inherit one set of twenty three chromosomes from each of our parents. Thus each cell of our bodies except sex cells contain 23...

Veins

The Dorsal Arm Veins

Veins are blood vessels that take blood to the heart. The superior vena cava returns blood to the heart from the arms and head. The inferior vena cava returns blood to the heart from the legs and trunk. In each side of the neck, three veins come together. Medially located in the neck is the large internal jugular vein. Laterally located in the neck is the smaller external jugular vein. These two veins join with the subclavian vein to form the innominate vein. The two innominate veins come...

Optional Deep Muscles of the Neck

Human Musculature Under Scapula

To examine the deep muscles of the neck, cut the sternomastoid and sternohyoid from the sternum on the side of the cat which was most damaged during injection. Be careful not to cut the small under-lying muscles. Deep to the sternohyoid are the sternothyroid and the thyrohyoid. The sternothyroid begins on the sternum and ends at the thyroid cartilage. The thyrohyoid begins on the thyroid cartilage and ends on the hyoid bone. All of these neck muscles of the cat are also found in the human. In...

Body Cavity Membranes

Label The Abdominal Vicera

The anterior cavities of the body are lined with membranes called serous membranes Figs. 1.6, 1.7 . These secrete serous fluid. The membranes and the fluid provide a smooth, lubricated surface for the viscera. There are four serous membranes the pericardium around the heart, the peritoneum around most of the abdomino-pelvic organs, and the two pleurae sing. - pleura , one around each lung. Each serous membrane is folded twice around the internal organs so that there appears to be two membranes...

Neuromuscular Junction

Neuromuscular Junction Labeled

Each skeletal muscle fiber is stimulated to contract by a branch of a nerve cell, a neuron. The muscle fiber is said to be innervated by the neuron. The neuron and the muscle make contact at the neuromuscular junction. Normally, there is one junction at the middle of each muscle fiber, though one neuron may innervate more than one muscle fiber. The neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates are together called the motor unit. The neuromuscular junction is shown in Figure 13.4. Our knowledge...

Connective Tissue

Body Tissue Sketches

Connective tissues are found throughout the body. They are characterized by widely spaced cells with one exception , and a large amount of non-living, intercellular material called the matrix. The basic function of connective tissues is to connect things together. There are eleven connective tissues. Three of these blood, compact bone, and cancellous bone are more thoroughly discussed in the chapters on blood and skeletal tissue respectively. The other connective tissues can be determined by...

Nystagmus

Crista Ampullaris

Nystagmus may be defined as involuntary eye movements characterized by slow and quick phases in opposite directions. The eye movements following rotation of the head are known as nystagmus. They show how complex, yet orderly, some of our reflex processes are. If the head is rotated slowly to the left, the eyes move slowly to the right. As soon as the eyes have moved as far to the right as possible, they then move quickly to the left. Nystagmus may be demonstrated by the use of a swivel type...

Coagulation Time

Identifying Skulls For Evolution

The process of blood clotting is called coagulation. Coagulation time is the length of time that it takes for blood to clot once it is drawn into a tube. Coagulation time is usually between 2 and 6 minutes. Cotton ball soaked in alcohol Sterile disposable lancet Non-heparinized capillary tube Three cornered file 1. Scrub a finger with alcohol Stick the finger with a sterile lancet. Immediately after using the lancet place it in the bio-hazard container. Any disposable object contaminated with...

Urinalysis

Epithelial Cell Sketch

Urine is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic solutes in water. Since urine is derived from blood which has travelled throughout the body, urinalysis can point to problems in many other systems besides the urinary system. Physical and chemical characteristics of urine are used to point to abnormalities. Many of the tests to be performed will utilize test strips. These test strips have been impregnated with chemicals which react with chemicals in the urine. By comparing the color of the...

Monohybrid Problems

One trait being followed from one generation to the next. 1. Polydactyly, having more than five digits, is a dominant allele. We can use any letter for our abbreviation, but we should use one which is easy to remember and which has different forms for upper and lower case. Let us use F to represent the dominant allele for Polydactyly. Five fingers is a recessive allele so we will abbreviate it f1. Two individuals who are heterozygous for Polydactyly marry. What is the phenotype and genotype of...

Typing

Antigens located on the surface of red blood cells determine the type of blood you have. We will be looking for the presence of A, B, Rh, M, and N antigens. For example, if you have A antigens on your red blood cells, you have type A blood. If you have B antigens on your red blood cells, you have type B blood. If you have both of these antigens, you have type AB blood. If you have neither of these antigens present, you have type O blood. In the U.S. white population, 45 have type O blood, 41...

Parts Of The Microscope

Monocular Microscope Parts

Write the name of each part of the microscope in the blanks in Figure 2.1 or Figure 2.2. Label only the drawing which most closely matches your microscope . Your microscope is a compound microscope that is, it has two sets of lenses which focus the light into your eye and magnify the object being observed. The lens closest to your eye is the eyepiece which is scientifically known as the ocular. Some microscopes have two oculars and are thus binocular. Your ocular magnifies objects ten times 10X...

The Nasolacrimal Apparatus

Nasolacrimal Fold

The orbit of the eye is formed by the following bones maxillae, lacrimals, ethmoid, zygomatics, sphenoid, and frontal. The eye itself fits into the recess formed by these bones the orbit . Protecting the anterior aspects of the eye are the eyelids or palpebrae . Covering the posterior surface of the eyelids and covering the anterior portion of the sclera is a thin membrane called the conjunctiva. It is continuous with the epithelium of the cornea. Located in the superior, anterolateral aspect...

Histological Study Of Nerve Tissue

Microscopic Image Gray Commissure

Examine and sketch a smear of an ox spinal cord as seen with a microscope Identify the following axon, dendrite, and perikaryon. Figure 21.1 Sensory and Motor Neurons Axon X2 Axon terminal branch X2 Connector neuron Dendrite X2 Motor neuron Muscle fiber Myelin sheath X2 Neurofibril Neurolemma X2 Nissl body Node of Ranvier X2 Nucleus of Schwann cell X2 Nucleus of the perikaryon X2 Perikaryon X2 Receptor X2 Sensory neuron Spinal ganglion dorsal root ganglion Synapse Figure 22.1 Posterior View of...

Hepatic Portal Circulation

Common Iliac Vein Named

Hepatic portal circulation consists of veins that drain blood from the intestines, stomach, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder and empty into the hepatic portal vein which directs blood to the liver. The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. The superior mesenteric vein drains the small intestine and portions of the large intestine and stomach. The splenic vein drains the spleen and also receives blood from the stomach by way of the...

Fetal Circulation

Before birth your circulatory system was somewhat different than it is now. The major cause was that before birth your lungs did not contain air and so were not functional. Instead of acquiring oxygen from the lungs the fetus gets its oxygen and nutrition, and eliminates wastes through the umbilical cord which is connected to the placenta. The placenta is a specialized structure produced by the embryo which grows into the walls of the uterus during embryonic development. The blood vessels of...

Blood Pressure

External Structure Sheep Heart

With each contraction of the ventricles, blood is forced into the arteries of the body. The force with which the blood is pushing against the artery walls when the ventricles are contracting is known as the systolic pressure. The systolic pressure averages 120 millimeters of mercury mm Hg . The pressure that results in the arteries when the ventricles are relaxed is known as the diastolic pressure. The diastolic pressure indicates the lowest, constant pressure or strain on the vessel wall. The...

The Lymphatic System

Lymphatic Vessels The Arm

The lymphatic system is a system of drainage vessels which return fluid lymph from between the cells to the heart. The lymphatic system also slowly delivers fatty substances absorbed by the intestine into the blood. This allows the blood to accommodate lipids which might block the flow of blood if they were taken directly into the blood from the digestive system. Another main function of the lymphatic system is in the immune response fighting microorganisms. The smallest vessels of the...

Total Red Blood Cell Count

The total red blood cell count is the number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter of blood. A range of 4.2 million to 6.0 million per cubic millimeter of blood is considered to be normal for a male. A range of 3 8 million to 5.4 million per cubic millimeter of blood is considered to be normal for a female. Materials Figure 26.1 Cotton ball soaked in alcohol Dry cotton ball Sterile disposable lancet Unopette for red blood cell counts Hemacytometer and cover glass Mechanical hand counter...

The Upper Extremities

Coronoid And Coracoid Processes

The two shoulder girdles are each composed of two bones, the scapula and the clavicle. The scapula is a triangular bone with a lateral socket, the glenoid cavity, for the humerus of the arm. There are two processes which project above the level of the glenoid cavity. The superior of these processes is the acromion acros Gr. topmost, height . The acromion is an extension of the posterior spine and articulates with the clavicle. The second process, the coracoid process, lies superior and anterior...