Meiosis

Meiosis is a special form of nuclear division which occurs only in the ovaries and testes. This form of division results in daughter cells with only half of the normal number of chromosomes they are haploid. These daughter cells are ova (sing. - ovum) (eggs) and sperm. With the union of sperm and ovum at fertilization, the full number of chromosomes (diploid) is reestablished in the new individual. Without meiosis, union of sperm and ovum would produce a new individual with twice as many...

Relative Positions

Anatomical Terms For Body Parts

Descriptions of the location of one part of the body in relation to another part of the body utilize terms of relative position. All of these terms assume that the body is in a standard position called the anatomical position. This posture of the body assumes that the body is facing the viewer, arms and legs down, and palms forward (Figure 1.1). Regardless of the actual position of the body and its parts, anatomical terminology is used as if the body were in anatomical position. Note in...

Gross Anatomy

Pancreatic Duct Alimentary Canal

Using the models and your textbook identify and label all of the organs and structures of the digestive system in Figures 20.1, 20.2, and 203. The oral cavity has as its walls the cheeks, for its roof the anterior hard palate and posterior soft palate, and for its floor muscles of the throat and neck. Hanging from the posterior border of the soft palate is the uvula. When food is taken into the oral cavity it is broken into smaller particles by the action of the teeth and tongue (mechanical...

The Brain And Cranial Nerves

Midsagittal Section The Skull

The brain is divided into four major areas the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the brain stem, and the diencephalon. The brain stem consists of the midbrain, pons varolii, and medulla oblongata. The midbrain is further divided into the cerebral peduncle, corpora quadrigemina, and aqueduct of Sylvius (cerebral aqueduct). The diencephalon region includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, intermediate mass, third ventricle, and fornix. The brain is covered by the same three meninges as the spinal cord the...

Figure Of Renal System Of Female

Renal Fascia Around Kidney

The primary sex organs of the male are the two testes (sing. - testis), sometimes referred to as testicles. The testes are enclosed in an external pouch, the scrotum. Lying over the superior and posterior surfaces of a testis is an elongated organ, the epididymis, where sperm are stored. During ejaculation (ejection of the sperm) the sperm are propelled from the epididymis through the vas deferens. The vas deferens, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle make up the...

Muscles of the Lower

Serratus Ventralis Cat With Labels

There are three large muscles in the lower leg. The gastrocnemius (pronounced gastronemius) and the soleus lie posteriorly and make up the calf of the leg. The soleus is deep to the gastrocnemius. Both muscles attach to the calcaneus through the Achilles' tendon. On the anterior surface is the tibialis anterior. There are many other flexors and extensors just as there were in the arm, but we will not study them. Correctly label the muscles in Figure 191. Exercise 19.3 Identify the muscles on...

The Skeletal Plan

Muscles That Attach The Coxae

The human skeleton is composed of 206 bones. These bones are arranged in two groups the axial skeleton which is composed of the central bones of the body (skull, hyoid, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column) and the appendicular skeleton which contains the bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and of the arms and legs. All bones can be grouped according to their shape long, short, flat, and irregular, or according to their location su-tural and sesamoid. Sutural bones are located between the...

Cell Structure

Generalized Human Cell Diagram

Your body is made up of billions of individual living structures called cells. All cells are different, but most cells have certain common structures called organelles. We will study the anatomy of these structures in this chapter. More detail on the anatomy and physiology is given in your textbook. Figure 3-1 shows a generalized human cell and its basic parts. Using your textbook as a guide, fill in the labels on the figure. Examine the models of the cell. Be able to identify these parts on...

Body Cavities

Lower Left Abdominal Mass

All of the internal organs (viscera) are located within body cavities (Figure 1.5). The two major cavities are the dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity. The dorsal cavity is divided into the cranial cavity containing the brain and the spinal cavity containing the spinal cord. The ventral cavity is divided into the thoracic cavity, superior to the diaphragm, and the abdominopelvic cavity, inferior to the diaphragm. The thoracic cavity is further divided into the pleural cavities, which contain...

Figure 331 Urinary System

How Identify Red Blood Cells Urine

Adrenal gland Descending aorta Left spermatic vein Opening of ureter Renal artery Renal vein Right kidney Trigone Ureter Urethra Urinary bladder Calyx Capsule Column Cortex Hilus Papilla Pelvis Pyramid Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Fluid collected in Bowman's capsule passes sequentially through the proximal convoluted tubule, the descending limb of Henle's loop, the ascending limb of Henle's loop, and into the distal convoluted tubule. The convoluted tubules and loop of Henle are surrounded by...

Female

Male Sex Gland

Figure 36.3 illustrates the external reproductive organs of the female. The mons pubis is the anterior mound superficial to the symphysis pubis. Two folds of skin, the lateral labia majora, and the medial labia minora, surround the vaginal orifice and the urethral orifice. The urethral orifice is anterior to the vaginal. The vaginal orifice may be partially covered by a thin membrane termed the hymen. Between the urethral orifice and the mons pubis is the clitoris. Most of the reproductive...

Paranasal Sinuses

Labeling Facial Bones

Five bones of the skull, the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and two maxillae, contain paranasal sinuses which are paired cavities lined with mucous membranes and connected to the nasal cavity. These cavities lighten the bones of the skull and serve to provide resonance when we speak or sing. Locate the paranasal sinuses in the bones of the disarticulated skull You will not be able to see the frontal sinuses. Label the sinuses on Figure 9.7. Ethmoidal air cells (sinuses) Frontal sinus Maxillary...

Vertebral Column Sternum And Rib Cage

Spinal Column Bone Names

The last of the bones of the axial skeleton is the horseshoe shaped hyoid. This bone is unique in that it does not articulate with any other bone. It is located inferior to the mandible, and provides a floor of support for the tongue. Atlas Axis C7 Cervical curve Coccyx Facet Intervertebral foramen Lumbar curve L4 Sacral curve Sacrum Thoracic curve Label Figure 10.3, comparing the figure to the laboratory specimens. Take careful note of the attachments of the ribs to the thoracic vertebrae and...

The Ventricles Of The Brain And Cerebrospinal Fluid

The brain has four cavities called ventricles. The first and second ventricles are referred to as the lateral ventricles and are located in the cerebral hemispheres. A midline structure, the septum pellucidum, which is a thin membrane, separates the two lateral ventricles. The lateral ventricles communicate with the third ventricle by way of a small oval opening called the foramen of Monro. The third ventricle communicates with the fourth ventricle by way of the aqueduct of Sylvius. The fourth...

The Cranium

Zygomatic Arch For Singing

The portion of the skull which encloses the brain is the cranium. There are eight cranial bones frontal, two parietals, occipital, two temporals, ethmoid, and sphenoid. They are all held together with sutures. The frontal bone forms the anterior portion of the cranium, including the ridges above the eyebrows, and the superior portion of the orbit or eye socket. The supraorbital foramina can be seen above the orbits. The frontal is attached to the two parietals at the coronal suture corona L....

Info

Layers The Lung Horizontal

Conchae Diaphragm Horizontal fissure Larynx Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Primary bronchus Naris Nasopharynx Oblique fissure Oropharynx Rib Secondary bronchus Trachea Visceral pleura cartilage. It is attached to the first segment of the trachea. The paired cartilages of the larynx are much smaller than the single cartilages. The arytenoid cartilages are located superior to the posterior portion of the cricoid cartilage. The arytenoid cartilages are attached to the vocal folds and pharyngeal...

Osseous Tissue

In chapter five you were introduced to osseous or bone tissue. There are two kinds of bone, compact and cancellous. These two types occupy different regions of bones, have different functions, and are histologically distinct. Compact osseous tissue makes up the strong outer portion of bones. This type of bone is composed of tightly packed cylindrical structures called osteons osteon Gr. bone . Each osteon is composed of concentric rings of mineral called lamellae surrounding a central canal....

Cat Dissection Skin Removal

Objective Dissection

The muscles of the cat are very similar in location, name, and function to those in the human body. We willstudy the cat muscles to better understand human musculature. Laboratory cats are preserved with a mixture of alcohol, phenol, and formaldehyde. These preservatives may upset your nose and eyes, but they are necessary if your cat is to be preserved from the growth of fungi and bacteria. The preservatives also eliminate any germs the cats may have been carrying. You may protect your hands...

Anatomy And Physiology

Anatomy And Physiology

ROBERT BAUMAN, JR., PH.D STEVE DUTTON HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, LABORATORY TEXTBOOK ROBERT BAUMAN, JR., PH.D. STEVE DUTTON Published by Whittier Publications Inc. Lido Beach N.Y. 11561 Copyright 1991, 1996 by Robert Bauman Jr. and Steve Dutton. All rights reserved. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, eletronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the...

Dihybrid Problems

Two traits being followed from one generation to the next. You will still use the Punnett square, only each egg or sperm will have alleles for two different genes and the square will have sixteen boxes instead of four. 4. In horses, black color B dominates chestnut color b . The trotting gait T dominates the pacing gait t . A cross is made between a horse homozygous for black color and the pacing gait, and a horse which is homozygous for both chestnut color and trotting gait. List the probable...

Spirometry

Exercise And Vital Capacity

The measurement of lung capacity is known as spirometry. Figure 32.1 shows a Propper spirometer used to make such measurement. There are a number of terms used in describing various volumes of air during breathing Tidal volume - the normal amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath. Average 500 ml Expiratory reserve volume - the amount of air which can be expelled beyond the tidal volume i.e. beyond normal expiration . Average 1,200 ml Inspiratory reserve volume -...

Histological Study Of Spinal Cord

Examine and sketch the cross section of the spinal cord as seen with a microscope. Use low power. Identify the following central canal, gray commissure, gray matter, spinal ganglion, and white matter. 1. _ The covering of the brain and spinal cord that is 5. _ Name the two grooves that almost divide the spinal cord 7. _ The root of the spinal cord that conducts motor informa 8. _ Where specifically within the vertebral column does the spinal cord cease to be a solid structure 9. _ From what...

Masticatory Muscles

Sternoldomastoid Phtot Humans

There are five major muscles for mastication, chewing, on each side of the head. The primary muscle for elevation of the mandible is the masseter. The temporalis lying over the temporal bone acts synergistically with the masseter. Another muscle working with the masseter to elevate the mandible is the medial pterygoid. The medial pterygoid is medial to the ramus of the mandible, and so cannot be seen in Figure 17.2. Depression of the mandible is greatly assisted by gravity and there is only one...

Veins

The Dorsal Arm Veins

Veins are blood vessels that take blood to the heart. The superior vena cava returns blood to the heart from the arms and head. The inferior vena cava returns blood to the heart from the legs and trunk. In each side of the neck, three veins come together. Medially located in the neck is the large internal jugular vein. Laterally located in the neck is the smaller external jugular vein. These two veins join with the subclavian vein to form the innominate vein. The two innominate veins come...

Optional Deep Muscles of the Neck

Human Musculature Under Scapula

To examine the deep muscles of the neck, cut the sternomastoid and sternohyoid from the sternum on the side of the cat which was most damaged during injection. Be careful not to cut the small under-lying muscles. Deep to the sternohyoid are the sternothyroid and the thyrohyoid. The sternothyroid begins on the sternum and ends at the thyroid cartilage. The thyrohyoid begins on the thyroid cartilage and ends on the hyoid bone. All of these neck muscles of the cat are also found in the human. In...

Body Cavity Membranes

Label The Abdominal Vicera

The anterior cavities of the body are lined with membranes called serous membranes Figs. 1.6, 1.7 . These secrete serous fluid. The membranes and the fluid provide a smooth, lubricated surface for the viscera. There are four serous membranes the pericardium around the heart, the peritoneum around most of the abdomino-pelvic organs, and the two pleurae sing. - pleura , one around each lung. Each serous membrane is folded twice around the internal organs so that there appears to be two membranes...

Neuromuscular Junction

Neuromuscular Junction Labeled

Each skeletal muscle fiber is stimulated to contract by a branch of a nerve cell, a neuron. The muscle fiber is said to be innervated by the neuron. The neuron and the muscle make contact at the neuromuscular junction. Normally, there is one junction at the middle of each muscle fiber, though one neuron may innervate more than one muscle fiber. The neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates are together called the motor unit. The neuromuscular junction is shown in Figure 13.4. Our knowledge...

Connective Tissue

Fibrocartilage Connective Tissue Drawing

Connective tissues are found throughout the body. They are characterized by widely spaced cells with one exception , and a large amount of non-living, intercellular material called the matrix. The basic function of connective tissues is to connect things together. There are eleven connective tissues. Three of these blood, compact bone, and cancellous bone are more thoroughly discussed in the chapters on blood and skeletal tissue respectively. The other connective tissues can be determined by...

Nystagmus

Crista Ampullaris

Nystagmus may be defined as involuntary eye movements characterized by slow and quick phases in opposite directions. The eye movements following rotation of the head are known as nystagmus. They show how complex, yet orderly, some of our reflex processes are. If the head is rotated slowly to the left, the eyes move slowly to the right. As soon as the eyes have moved as far to the right as possible, they then move quickly to the left. Nystagmus may be demonstrated by the use of a swivel type...

Coagulation Time

Identifying Skulls For Evolution

The process of blood clotting is called coagulation. Coagulation time is the length of time that it takes for blood to clot once it is drawn into a tube. Coagulation time is usually between 2 and 6 minutes. Cotton ball soaked in alcohol Sterile disposable lancet Non-heparinized capillary tube Three cornered file 1. Scrub a finger with alcohol Stick the finger with a sterile lancet. Immediately after using the lancet place it in the bio-hazard container. Any disposable object contaminated with...

Urinalysis

How Read Urinometer

Urine is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic solutes in water. Since urine is derived from blood which has travelled throughout the body, urinalysis can point to problems in many other systems besides the urinary system. Physical and chemical characteristics of urine are used to point to abnormalities. Many of the tests to be performed will utilize test strips. These test strips have been impregnated with chemicals which react with chemicals in the urine. By comparing the color of the...

Parts Of The Microscope

Parts Microscope

Write the name of each part of the microscope in the blanks in Figure 2.1 or Figure 2.2. Label only the drawing which most closely matches your microscope . Your microscope is a compound microscope that is, it has two sets of lenses which focus the light into your eye and magnify the object being observed. The lens closest to your eye is the eyepiece which is scientifically known as the ocular. Some microscopes have two oculars and are thus binocular. Your ocular magnifies objects ten times 10X...

The Nasolacrimal Apparatus

Nasolacrimal Fold

The orbit of the eye is formed by the following bones maxillae, lacrimals, ethmoid, zygomatics, sphenoid, and frontal. The eye itself fits into the recess formed by these bones the orbit . Protecting the anterior aspects of the eye are the eyelids or palpebrae . Covering the posterior surface of the eyelids and covering the anterior portion of the sclera is a thin membrane called the conjunctiva. It is continuous with the epithelium of the cornea. Located in the superior, anterolateral aspect...

Histological Study Of Nerve Tissue

Spinal Cord Motor Neurons

Examine and sketch a smear of an ox spinal cord as seen with a microscope Identify the following axon, dendrite, and perikaryon. Figure 21.1 Sensory and Motor Neurons Axon X2 Axon terminal branch X2 Connector neuron Dendrite X2 Motor neuron Muscle fiber Myelin sheath X2 Neurofibril Neurolemma X2 Nissl body Node of Ranvier X2 Nucleus of Schwann cell X2 Nucleus of the perikaryon X2 Perikaryon X2 Receptor X2 Sensory neuron Spinal ganglion dorsal root ganglion Synapse Figure 22.1 Posterior View of...

Hepatic Portal Circulation

Common Iliac Vein Named

Hepatic portal circulation consists of veins that drain blood from the intestines, stomach, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder and empty into the hepatic portal vein which directs blood to the liver. The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein. The superior mesenteric vein drains the small intestine and portions of the large intestine and stomach. The splenic vein drains the spleen and also receives blood from the stomach by way of the...

Fetal Circulation

Before birth your circulatory system was somewhat different than it is now. The major cause was that before birth your lungs did not contain air and so were not functional. Instead of acquiring oxygen from the lungs the fetus gets its oxygen and nutrition, and eliminates wastes through the umbilical cord which is connected to the placenta. The placenta is a specialized structure produced by the embryo which grows into the walls of the uterus during embryonic development. The blood vessels of...

Blood Pressure

External Structure Sheep Heart

With each contraction of the ventricles, blood is forced into the arteries of the body. The force with which the blood is pushing against the artery walls when the ventricles are contracting is known as the systolic pressure. The systolic pressure averages 120 millimeters of mercury mm Hg . The pressure that results in the arteries when the ventricles are relaxed is known as the diastolic pressure. The diastolic pressure indicates the lowest, constant pressure or strain on the vessel wall. The...

The Lymphatic System

Lymphatic Vessels The Arm

The lymphatic system is a system of drainage vessels which return fluid lymph from between the cells to the heart. The lymphatic system also slowly delivers fatty substances absorbed by the intestine into the blood. This allows the blood to accommodate lipids which might block the flow of blood if they were taken directly into the blood from the digestive system. Another main function of the lymphatic system is in the immune response fighting microorganisms. The smallest vessels of the...

Total Red Blood Cell Count

The total red blood cell count is the number of erythrocytes per cubic millimeter of blood. A range of 4.2 million to 6.0 million per cubic millimeter of blood is considered to be normal for a male. A range of 3 8 million to 5.4 million per cubic millimeter of blood is considered to be normal for a female. Materials Figure 26.1 Cotton ball soaked in alcohol Dry cotton ball Sterile disposable lancet Unopette for red blood cell counts Hemacytometer and cover glass Mechanical hand counter...

The Upper Extremities

Coronoid And Coracoid Processes

The two shoulder girdles are each composed of two bones, the scapula and the clavicle. The scapula is a triangular bone with a lateral socket, the glenoid cavity, for the humerus of the arm. There are two processes which project above the level of the glenoid cavity. The superior of these processes is the acromion acros Gr. topmost, height . The acromion is an extension of the posterior spine and articulates with the clavicle. The second process, the coracoid process, lies superior and anterior...