Contents

12.1 Introduction 351

12.2 Forms of Manganese and Abundance in Soils 352

12.3 Importance to Plants and Animals 352

12.3.1 Essentiality of Manganese to Higher Plants 352

12.3.2 Function in Plants 352

12.3.3 Importance to Animals 353

12.4 Absorption and Mobility 353

12.4.1 Absorption Mechanisms 353

12.4.2 Distribution and Mobility of Manganese in Plants 353

12.5 Manganese Deficiency 354

12.5.1 Prevalence 354

12.5.2 Indicator Plants 354

12.5.3 Symptoms 354

12.5.4 Tolerance 355

12.6 Toxicity 356

12.6.1 Prevalence 356

12.6.2 Indicator Plants 356

12.6.3 Symptoms 356

12.6.4 Tolerance 357

12.7 Manganese and Diseases 357

12.8 Conclusion 365

Acknowledgments 365

References 366

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