11.1 Historical Information 329
11.1.1 Determination of Essentiality 329
11.2 Functions in Plants 330
11.3 Forms and Sources of Iron in Soils 330
11.4 Diagnosis of Iron Status in Plants 332
11.4.1 Iron Deficiency 332
11.4.2 Iron Toxicity 332
11.5 Iron Concentration in Crops 335
11.5.1 Plant Part and Growth Stage 335
11.5.2 Iron Requirement of Some Crops 335
11.5.3 Iron Levels in Plants 336
184.108.40.206 Iron Uptake 336
220.127.116.11 Movement of Iron within Plants 338
11.6 Factors Affecting Plant Uptake 339
11.6.1 Soil Factors 339
11.6.2 Plant Factors 343
11.7 Soil Testing for Iron 344
11.8 Fertilizers for Iron 344
11.1 HISTORICAL INFORMATION 11.1.1 Determination of Essentiality
Julius von Sachs, the founder of modern water culture experiments, included iron in his first nutrient cultures in 1860, and Eusèbe Gris, in 1844, showed that iron was essential for curing chlorosis in vines (1,2). Sachs had already shown that iron can be taken up by leaves, and within a few years L. Rissmüller had demonstrated that foliar iron is obviously translocated by phloem out of leaves before leaf fall in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The early developments in the study of iron in plant nutrition were summarized by Molisch in 1892 (3).
It was another 100 years before the principal processes of the mobilization of iron in the rhizosphere started to be understood (4-8).
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