11.1 Historical Information 329

11.1.1 Determination of Essentiality 329

11.2 Functions in Plants 330

11.3 Forms and Sources of Iron in Soils 330

11.4 Diagnosis of Iron Status in Plants 332

11.4.1 Iron Deficiency 332

11.4.2 Iron Toxicity 332

11.5 Iron Concentration in Crops 335

11.5.1 Plant Part and Growth Stage 335

11.5.2 Iron Requirement of Some Crops 335

11.5.3 Iron Levels in Plants 336 Iron Uptake 336 Movement of Iron within Plants 338

11.6 Factors Affecting Plant Uptake 339

11.6.1 Soil Factors 339

11.6.2 Plant Factors 343

11.7 Soil Testing for Iron 344

11.8 Fertilizers for Iron 344

References 345

11.1 HISTORICAL INFORMATION 11.1.1 Determination of Essentiality

Julius von Sachs, the founder of modern water culture experiments, included iron in his first nutrient cultures in 1860, and Eusèbe Gris, in 1844, showed that iron was essential for curing chlorosis in vines (1,2). Sachs had already shown that iron can be taken up by leaves, and within a few years L. Rissmüller had demonstrated that foliar iron is obviously translocated by phloem out of leaves before leaf fall in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The early developments in the study of iron in plant nutrition were summarized by Molisch in 1892 (3).

It was another 100 years before the principal processes of the mobilization of iron in the rhizosphere started to be understood (4-8).

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