References

The essentiality of certain elements in minute quantity for plants with special reference to copper. Plant Physiol. 14 371-375, 1939. 2. H. Marschner. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd ed. London Academic Press, 1995, p. 889. 3. E. Epstein, A.J. Bloom. Mineral Nutrition of Plants Principles and Perspectives, 2nd ed. Sunderland, Mass. Sinauer, 2005, p. 400. 4. J.B. Jones, Jr. Hydroponics. A Practical Guide for the Soilless Grower. Boca Raton, Fla. St. Lucie, 2000,...

Plant Mechanisms Of Aluminum Avoidance Or Tolerance

There are two types of mechanisms whereby a plant can avoid or tolerate aluminum toxicity (a) exclusion of aluminum from the symplasm, or (b) internal tolerance of aluminum in the sym-plasm. Good reviews on this subject are in Taylor (186,187), Matsumoto (99), Kochian et al. (179, 188), and Barcelo and Poschenrieder (96). 16.8.1 Plant Mechanisms of Aluminum Avoidance Based on chemical analysis of aluminum in root sections, Horst et al. (189) showed that the root tips of an aluminum-tolerant...

Foliar Absorption

Tank mixing urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer (UAN 0.5 by weight) with ZnSO4 increased leaflet zinc concentration compared to using ZnSO4 alone in pecan. Zinc nitrate was more efficient than ZnSO4 in increasing leaflet concentration, especially if tank mixed with UAN (0.5 ). Zinc concentrations of spray solutions can be reduced by one eighth to one fourth of the current recommended rate as ZnSO4 at 86 g per 100L of water. Use of the lowest rate of Zn(NO3)2, 10.8 g per 100L of water + UAN,...

Info

Principles of Plant Nutrition. Bern International Potash Institute, 1987, pp. 527-539. J.B. Storey. The Zn story from beginning to the present. Proceedings of the Texas Pecan Growers Assn 81st and 82nd Annual Conference, 2003, pp. 55-58. C.R. Millikan, B.C. Hanger. Effects of chelation and of various cations on the mobility of foliar applied 65Zn in subterranean clover. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 18 953-957, 1965. C.R. Millikan, B.C. Hanger. Distribution of 65Zn in pear trees...

Fertilizers For Chlorine

Chlorine is added to soil from a wide variety of sources that include chloride from rainwater, irrigation waters, animal manures, plant residues, fertilizers, and some crop protection chemicals. The amount of chloride deposited annually from the atmosphere varies from 18 to 36 kg1 ha1 year1 for continental areas to more than 100 kg1 ha1 year1 for coastal areas (4). Most of the chloride applied as animal manures or plant residues is soluble and readily available for crop uptake. Because most of...

Nickel Fertilizers

Essentially under all normal field conditions, it is unlikely that application of nickel fertilizer will be required. Exceptions to this concept occur when urea is the primary source of nitrogen supply, in species in which ureides play an important physiological role (2), when excessive applications of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ca, or Mg have been made over many years (2) and perhaps also in nitrogen-fixing crops grown on mineral-poor or highly nickel-fixing (high pH, high lime) soils. In experiments...

Introduction

The determination of manganese (Mn) essentiality in plant growth by McHargue (1914-1922) focused the attention of plant nutritionists on this nutrient, and led the way for further groundbreaking studies. Since then, research into the concentrations of manganese that confer deficiency or toxicity, and the variation between- and within-plant species in their tolerance or susceptibility to these afflictions has proliferated. The symptoms of toxicity and deficiency have also received much attention...

Physical And Chemical Properties Of Nickel And Its Role In Animal And Bacterial Systems

Nickel is a first-row transition metal with chemical and physical characteristics ideally suited to biological activity (18). Divalent nickel is the only oxidation state of nickel that is likely to be of any importance to higher plants. Nevertheless, Ni2+ forms a bewildering array of complexes with a variety of coordination numbers and geometries (19). Nickel readily binds, complexes, and chelates a number of substances of biological interest and is ubiquitous in all biological systems. Nickel...

Molybdenum Fertilizers

Several molybdenum sources can be used to prevent or alleviate molybdenum deficiency in crop plants (Table 13.4). These sources vary considerably in their solubility and in molybdenum content, and their effectiveness often depends primarily on the method of application, plant requirements, and on various soil factors (87). The relative solubilities of some molybdenum fertilizers are as follows sodium molyb-date > ammonium molybdate > molybdic acid > molybdenum trioxide > molybdenum...

Table 111

Fe Deficiency Chlorosis-Inducing Factors That Are Often Observed, and Synonyms for These Chlorosis Symptoms Lime-induced chlorosis Bicarbonate-induced chlorosis High ethylene concentration Ethylene-induced chlorosis High soil compaction High heavy metal content Management factors Soil compaction High P fertilization High application of Cu-containing fungicides Inadequate assimilate delivery and late vintage (harvest) Plant factors Low root growth High shoot root dry matter ratio Low Fe...

Copper Toxicity In Plants

Prior to the identification of copper as a micronutrient, it was regarded as a plant poison 7 . Therefore, no discussion of copper toxicity can rightfully begin without mention of its use as a fungicide. In 1882, botanist Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet developed a copper-based formulation that saved the disease-ravaged French wine industry 68 . Millardet's observation of the prophylactic effects against downy mildew of grapes by a copper sulfate-lime mixture led to the discovery and development...

Soil Testing For Detecting Plant Nutritional Needs

Growth and function as criteria in determining the essential nature of inorganic nutrients. In E. Truog, ed. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Madison, Wis. University of Wisconsin, Press, 1951, pp. 313-341. R.D. Munson, W.L. Nelson. Principles and practices in plant analysis. In L.M. Walsh, J.D. Beaton, eds. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis. Madison, Wis. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., 1973, pp. 223-248. A Ulrich. Critical nitrate levels of sugar beets estimated from analysis of...

Diagnostic Criteria 121 Visual Diagnosis

Careful observations of the growth of plants can furnish direct evidence of their nutritional conditions. Metabolic disruptions resulting from nutrient deficiencies provide links between the function of an element and the appearance of a specific visible abnormality. Symptoms of disorders, therefore, provide a guide to identify nutritional deficiencies in plants. Careful experimental work and observations are needed to characterize symptoms. For example, nitrogen is needed for protein synthesis...