Teratogenicity MutagenicityCarcinogenicity

The German Commission E reports that hawthorn effects are unknown during pregnancy and lactation. No experimental data have been reported concerning toxicity in the embryo or fetus, or the effects on fertility or postnatal development. Commission E also reports the lack of experimental data concerning carcinogenicity. Despite experiential data that hawthorn may be mutagenic, Commission E feels that the amount of mutagenic substances ingested would not be sufficient to pose a risk to humans. Available information presents no indication of carcinogenic risk (11).

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