It is generally thought that the Citrus originated in Southeast Asia (1). There are a number of Citrus types, but within oranges the principal members are the sweet orange and the bitter orange (2). The horticultural mapping of Citrus is notoriously difficult, with large discrepancies between writings of number of variants of all types of Citrus. Despite this, there are three properly recognized bitter orange fruits and two other closely related fruits. One of these relatives is the bergamot, the oil of which is famous for giving the distinct taste in Earl Gray tea. Bitter orange fruit is too sour for general con-

From Forensic Science and Medicine: Herbal Products: Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Second Edition

Edited by: T. S. Tracy and R. L. Kingston © Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ

sumption, although it is eaten with salt and chili in Mexico (3) and raw in Iran (4). The peel of the fruit has a distinctive taste that is highly valued in marmalade, its most widespread culinary use (1). Citrus aurantium is used in several alcoholic beverages. When dried, the peel is used in a distinctive Belgian beer called Orange Muscat (5). The oil from C. aurantium is a standard ingredient in other liquors such as Triple Sec, Cointreau, and Curacao (5). The oil is also common in perfumes and as a flavoring agent in sweets (5).

The bulk primary usage of C. aurantium is for medicinal purposes. In China, Japan, and Korea, when dried, the entire unripe fruit is used to treat digestive problems. The dried fruit is used to stimulate gastric acid secretion and appetite in Western countries.

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