Antiulcer Activity

A bilberry extract containing 25 anthocyanidins (Myrtocyan) demonstrated antiulcer activity in several rat models (5). Efficacy was measured using an index of ulceration and means were compared using the MannWhitney U test. Minimum doses producing statistically significant benefit were 100 mg kg for ulcers induced by pyloric ligation, 25 mg kg for reser-pine ulcer, and 100 mg kg for phenylbutazone ulcers (p < 0.01 compared to control). For acetic acid ulcers, efficacy was determined by...

History

Ephedra, and other medicinal plants have been identified at European neanderthal burial sites dating from 60,000 BCE (1). Thousands of years later, Pliny accurately described the medicinal uses of ephedra. But thousands of years before Pliny, traditional Chinese healers used ephedra extracts. Chinese texts from the 15 th century recommended ephedra as an antipyretic and antitussive. In Russia, around the same time, extracts of ephedra were used to treat joint pain and though recent laboratory...

References

Herbal research review vitex agnus castus. Clinical monograph. Q Rev Nat Med 1994 2 111-121. 2. Hobbs C. The chaste tree Vitex agnus castus. Pharm Hist 1991 33 19-24. 3. Foster S. A Field Guide to Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Boston Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002. 4. Du Mee C. Medicinal plant review vitex agnus castus. Aust J Med Herbalism 1993 5 63-65. 5. Jellin JM, Gregory, P, eds. Natural medicines comprehensive database. Stockton Therapeutic Research Faculty, 2003....

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects

John's wort is not known. It is composed of many different compounds. The concentrations of these chemicals vary from brand to brand and batch to batch. Hyperforin, hypericin, and pseudohypericin are considered by most to be the major active ingredients. Hypericin, pseudohypericin, isohypericin, protohypericin, protopseudohypericin, and cyclopseudohypericin are all anthraquinone derivatives (naphthodianthrones) (1-5). Hyperforin and adhyperforin are both prenylated...

Garlic Allergy

Allergic reactions to garlic have also been reported in the literature. Garlic allergy can manifest as occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, and diarrhea. A 35-year-old woman experienced several episodes of urticaria and angioedema associated with ingestion of raw or cooked garlic, as well as urticaria from touching garlic. Two garlic extracts as well as fresh garlic produced a 4+ reaction on skin prick tests (SPTs) in this patient, but no other food...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Cardiovascular Effects

Hawthorn extracts purportedly dilate coronary blood vessels, decrease blood pressure, increase myocardial contractility, and lower serum cholesterol (9). Benefits have been demonstrated in patients with heart failure (10). In patients with stage II New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure, doses of 160-900 mg day of the aqueous-alcoholic extract for up to 56 days showed an increase in exercise tolerance, decrease in rate pressure product, and increased ejection fraction (11). Degenring...

Toxicoloqy and Clinical Pharmacoloqy

Kingston, PharmD Herbal Products Toxicologyand Clinical Pharmacology, Second Edition, edited by Timothy S. Tracy and Richard L. Kingston, 2007 Criminal Poisoning Investigational Guidefor Law Enforcement, Toxicologists, Forensic Scientists, and Attorneys, Second Edition, by John H. Trestrail, III, 2007 Forensic Pathology of Trauma Common Problems for the Pathologist, by Michael J. Shkrum and David A. Ramsay, 2007 Marijuana and the Cannabinoids, edited by Mahmoud...

Margaret B Artz

Vitex agnus-castus is an herb that has been used for hundreds of years in Europe for female reproductive system disorders, is well-tolerated, and has established efficacy in helping with some symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome. The major active constituents of V. agnus-castus are iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and essential oils. Its dominant pharmacological effect on the body is inhibition of prolactin secretion. V. agnus-castus is available in a variety of dosage forms...

Dean Filandrinos Thomas R Yentsch and Katie L Meyers

John's wort has demonstrated clinical efficacy for mild to moderate depression and compares favorably to other more potent or toxic antidepressants. Low side effects and potential benefits warrant its use as a first-line agent for select patients with mild to moderate depression or anxiety-related conditions. Benefits related to other reported uses such as an antimicrobial, agent to treat neuropathic pain, antiinflammatory, treatment alternative for atopic dermatitis, and antioxidant are...

Case Reports of Toxicity Caused By Commercial Kava Products

Kava dermatopathy in association with traditional use of kava is well described in the literature 3 . In addition, two cases of dermopathy have recently been associated with commercially available kava products 26 . A 70-year-old man who had been using kava as an antidepressant for 2-3 weeks experienced itching, and later erythematous, infiltrated plaques on his chest, back, and face after several hours of sun exposure. Skin biopsy revealed CD8 lymphocytic infiltration with destruction of the...

Interactions

John's wort has been shown to have many interactions with other drugs. Although one study found that St. John's wort has no effect on the cytochrome P450 CYP enzyme system 62 , most studies have shown it is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, and some studies have shown it induces CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 3,63-67 . Other studies have not supported the induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 by St. John's wort 68 . Induction of CYP3A4 is of the greatest concern because it is an important enzyme involved with the...