Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Dermatological Effects

Clinical evidence of nutritional supplementation with OEP to correct dermal conditions is mixed. One theory for the mixed results is that in some persons, once sensitized, immunological factors may override what help OEP can offer. Very high doses of OEP or linoleic acid, or modest doses of y-linolenic acid, with corresponding correction of plasma EFA levels, produce some clinical improvement (8). A defect in the capability of the enzyme 8-6-desaturase to convert linoleic acid to y-linolenic...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Insomnia

Several studies have examined the effects of valerian on sleep (10-15). Donath and colleagues performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study assessing the short-term (single dose) and long-term (14-day multiple dosage) effects of valerian extract on sleep structure and sleep quality. There were significant differences between valerian and placebo for parameters describing slow-wave sleep (SWS) and shorter sleep latency, with very low adverse events. Leathwood and...

Antiulcer Activity

A bilberry extract containing 25 anthocyanidins (Myrtocyan) demonstrated antiulcer activity in several rat models (5). Efficacy was measured using an index of ulceration and means were compared using the MannWhitney U test. Minimum doses producing statistically significant benefit were 100 mg kg for ulcers induced by pyloric ligation, 25 mg kg for reser-pine ulcer, and 100 mg kg for phenylbutazone ulcers (p < 0.01 compared to control). For acetic acid ulcers, efficacy was determined by...

History

Ephedra, and other medicinal plants have been identified at European neanderthal burial sites dating from 60,000 BCE (1). Thousands of years later, Pliny accurately described the medicinal uses of ephedra. But thousands of years before Pliny, traditional Chinese healers used ephedra extracts. Chinese texts from the 15 th century recommended ephedra as an antipyretic and antitussive. In Russia, around the same time, extracts of ephedra were used to treat joint pain and though recent laboratory...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects

John's wort is not known. It is composed of many different compounds. The concentrations of these chemicals vary from brand to brand and batch to batch. Hyperforin, hypericin, and pseudohypericin are considered by most to be the major active ingredients. Hypericin, pseudohypericin, isohypericin, protohypericin, protopseudohypericin, and cyclopseudohypericin are all anthraquinone derivatives (naphthodianthrones) (1-5). Hyperforin and adhyperforin are both prenylated...

Garlic Allergy

Allergic reactions to garlic have also been reported in the literature. Garlic allergy can manifest as occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, and diarrhea. A 35-year-old woman experienced several episodes of urticaria and angioedema associated with ingestion of raw or cooked garlic, as well as urticaria from touching garlic. Two garlic extracts as well as fresh garlic produced a 4+ reaction on skin prick tests (SPTs) in this patient, but no other food...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects 51 Cardiovascular Effects

Hawthorn extracts purportedly dilate coronary blood vessels, decrease blood pressure, increase myocardial contractility, and lower serum cholesterol (9). Benefits have been demonstrated in patients with heart failure (10). In patients with stage II New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure, doses of 160-900 mg day of the aqueous-alcoholic extract for up to 56 days showed an increase in exercise tolerance, decrease in rate pressure product, and increased ejection fraction (11). Degenring...

Toxicoloqy and Clinical Pharmacoloqy

Kingston, PharmD Herbal Products Toxicologyand Clinical Pharmacology, Second Edition, edited by Timothy S. Tracy and Richard L. Kingston, 2007 Criminal Poisoning Investigational Guidefor Law Enforcement, Toxicologists, Forensic Scientists, and Attorneys, Second Edition, by John H. Trestrail, III, 2007 Forensic Pathology of Trauma Common Problems for the Pathologist, by Michael J. Shkrum and David A. Ramsay, 2007 Marijuana and the Cannabinoids, edited by Mahmoud...

References

Medicinal plants in a Middle Paleolithic grave Shanidar IV J Ethnopharmacol 1992 35(3) 263-266. 2. Kasahara Y, Hikino H, Tsurufuji S, Watanabe M, Ohuchi K. Antiinflammatory actions of ephedrines in acute inflammations. Planta Med 1985 (4) 325-331. 3. Grinspoon L, Hedblom P, eds. The speed culture amphetamine use and abuse in America. Cambridge Harvard University Press, 1975. 4. al-Khalil S, Alkofahi A, el-Eisawi D, al-Shibib A. Transtorine, a new quinoline alkaloid from Ephedra...

Dean Filandrinos Thomas R Yentsch and Katie L Meyers

John's wort has demonstrated clinical efficacy for mild to moderate depression and compares favorably to other more potent or toxic antidepressants. Low side effects and potential benefits warrant its use as a first-line agent for select patients with mild to moderate depression or anxiety-related conditions. Benefits related to other reported uses such as an antimicrobial, agent to treat neuropathic pain, antiinflammatory, treatment alternative for atopic dermatitis, and antioxidant are...

Case Reports of Toxicity Caused By Commercial Kava Products

Kava dermatopathy in association with traditional use of kava is well described in the literature 3 . In addition, two cases of dermopathy have recently been associated with commercially available kava products 26 . A 70-year-old man who had been using kava as an antidepressant for 2-3 weeks experienced itching, and later erythematous, infiltrated plaques on his chest, back, and face after several hours of sun exposure. Skin biopsy revealed CD8 lymphocytic infiltration with destruction of the...

Interactions

John's wort has been shown to have many interactions with other drugs. Although one study found that St. John's wort has no effect on the cytochrome P450 CYP enzyme system 62 , most studies have shown it is a potent inducer of CYP3A4, and some studies have shown it induces CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 3,63-67 . Other studies have not supported the induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 by St. John's wort 68 . Induction of CYP3A4 is of the greatest concern because it is an important enzyme involved with the...